Expansion of coconut plantations threatens the Tremembé indogenous people, Brazil

Coconut plantations, irrigation projects and tourism infrastructure are threaten indigenous Tremembé in Ceará


Description

The Tremembé are an indigenous group that inhabits Brazil’s northwest State of Ceará. In the XVI century, they occupied an area that spanned from what is nowadays the State Para to Ceará. However, today, they can only be found in four coastal municipalities of this last State. The Tremembé still maintain many of their traditions, especially the Torém dance. 

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Basic Data
NameExpansion of coconut plantations threatens the Tremembé indogenous people, Brazil
CountryBrazil
ProvinceCeará
SiteItarema
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture, Fisheries and Livestock Management)
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Intensive food production (monoculture and livestock)
Agro-toxics
Specific CommoditiesCoconut
Land
Fruits and Vegetables
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsAnual production of coconut is around 12.500 ton/year (Secretaria de Agricultura e Recursos Hídricos de Itarema).
Project Area (in hectares)3,900
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Start Date1970
Company Names or State EnterprisesDucoco Agrícola S.A from Brazil - owner
Relevant government actorsFederal Public Ministry (MPF); Ceará’s Federal Court

Local Government of Itapipoca; Ceará’s State Government; Fundação Nacional do Índio (FUNAI)
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersTremembé indigenous people, Comissão Pastoral da Terra (CPT)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingIndigenous groups or traditional communities
Landless peasants
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Religious groups
Forms of MobilizationDevelopment of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Land occupation
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Public campaigns
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Occupational disease and accidents
Potential: Malnutrition
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCorruption
Court decision (victory for environmental justice)
Court decision (undecided)
Violent targeting of activists
Application of existing regulations
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Despite FUNAI’s recognition of the “Tremembé indigenous territory of Almofala” in 1993, Ducoco has been able to hinder its formal declaration by the Ministry of Justice and further homologation by the President of the Republic. The Tremembé are still without possession of the land.
Sources and Materials
References

LUTA E RESISTÊNCIA DOS TREMEMBÉ DA REGIÃO DA MATA PELO SEU TERRITÓRIO
[click to view]

OS CIRCUITOS ESPACIAIS DA PRODUÇÃO DE COCO NO LITORAL OESTE DO CEARÁ
[click to view]

Links

CE - Apropriação da zona costeira, pelo agronegócio e o turismo internacional, coloca em risco terras tradicionais dos povos Tremembé
[click to view]

Terra Indígena Tremembé de Queimadas
[click to view]

Mobilização política e situação jurídica da terra
[click to view]

Wikinativa/Tremembé
[click to view]

Água de coco faz carreira de sucesso no exterior
[click to view]

AGRONEGÓCIO DO COCO E DISPUTAS POR TERRA: a Ducoco em território Tremembé (Itarema/CE)
[click to view]

Other Documents

Coconut plantation, Ceará
[click to view]

Ducoco
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorENVJustice Project
Last update15/01/2018
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