Cana Brava Amianto´s Mining in Minaçu, Goiás, Brazil

Despite its relation to health damage, Brazil still is the third largest producer of amianto (pr asbestos). Cana Brava is the only mine of amianto in Brazil.


Description

Asbestos or Amianto is a mineral able to resist high levels of temperatures. It is used in manufactured products, building materials, and the automobile industry. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies Amianto as a carcinogen and it was completely banned in Europe since 2005. Nevertheless, in some States of Brazil, the Amianto remains legal. By the end of 1930´s the Amianto consumed in Brazil was imported. The exploration and exploitation began in 1940 when the Anonymous Society of Asbestos Mining (Sama) owned by Saint Gobain (France) settled in Poções (State of Bahia), in Sao Felix do Amianto. The mine operated until 1967, due to the exhaustion of the reserves. The same year (1967) the company SAMA moved to Minaçu (State of Goiás) where they began to explore the mine “Cana Brava”.  Since then, Minaçu  -The Big Mine in tupi-guaraní language- is known as the “capital of amianto”, this is the only amianto mine in operation in Brazil. The Brazilian Association of those Exposed to Asbestos (Abrea) states that contact with amianto represents a serious public health problem. According to with them, because of the exposure to amianto, dozens of people have died of cancer and respiratory diseases. Mesothelioma is one of the most common (this is a type of cancer that develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs) In the so-called "bed of dust", where the ore was separated, workers, among them many women, were covered with dust. Evandra Vieira Brito, who lost her husband (ex-employee of Sama), with cancer in 2009, remembers: "There were about 20 girls covered by dust. They all died vomiting blood" After that Amianto was banned in Europe, a draft-law initiative was purposed by a senator to the Brazilian parliament in order to ban the extraction, industrialization, importation, transportation, and storage in Brazil.  Nevertheless, SAMA group and the local government of Minaçu are claiming the continuing of their use claiming that this is one of the most sources of employment in Minaçu. And this is true, criticizing amianto mining is endangering the city's only employer. About 70% of the taxes collected by the municipality came from this activity. Groups in favor, have stated that the “way in how amianto is extracted in Minaçu is not damaging health” and that “the company is respecting all the laws related to occupational health”. They also state that the people ill right now in Minaçu it because their get ill in the previous mine (in BA) as some of them also migrated because of work. In this case, (Saint Gobain is the main responsible).  According to a report by the Ministry of Health, 2,400 people have already died from amianto -related diseases between 2000 and 2010. "The trend will increase in the number of cases in the next few years" concluded the report. And this is because the exposure to amianto can lead to the disease up to 10 years after the exposure. The position of the Brazilian government is a controlled use.  Around the world 100,000 people die every year for being exposed to amianto in their work environment (WHO,2006). 

Basic Data
NameCana Brava Amianto´s Mining in Minaçu, Goiás, Brazil
CountryBrazil
ProvinceGoiás
SiteMinaçu
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Mineral processing
Building materials extraction (quarries, sand, gravel)
Specific CommoditiesCrisotila (White Amianto);
Asbestos
Project Details and Actors
Project Details-70% of the taxes collected by Minaçu came from the amianto mining activity

-300,000 tons of amianto per year

-This mine is the third largest chrysotile asbestos mine (after Russia and Canada)

-The mine has 800 employees and 400 service providers.
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Potential Affected Population30,000
Company Names or State EnterprisesEternit
Sama Sociedade Anonima Mineracao de Amianto from Brazil
Saint-Gobain from France - owner of SAMA until 1967
Relevant government actorsTribunal Superior Federal ;Instituto Brasileiro da Crisotila;Ministério das Minas e Energia (MME); Ministério da Saúde (MS);
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersBrazilian Association of Exposed to Asbestos (ABREA); International Federation of Asbestos Workers (FITAC);
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LOW (some local organising)
When did the mobilization beginMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups MobilizingInformal workers
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Trade unions
Forms of MobilizationDevelopment of a network/collective action
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Public campaigns
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Desertification/Drought, Food insecurity (crop damage), Mine tailing spills, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Deaths, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Occupational disease and accidents
Potential: Malnutrition, Infectious diseases
OtherMesothelioma (type of cancer that develops from the thin layer of tissue that covers many of the internal organs)
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Violations of human rights
Potential: Displacement
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseApplication of existing regulations
Development of Alternatives-To ban the use of asbestos in all Brazil

-Other groups only want to control its use (this is also the position of the Brazilian government)
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Economic arguments prevail over health issues. Despite the health impact, the company SAMA is seeing as the main employer and the motor of the economic activity in Minaçu.
Sources and Materials
References

Exploração de amianto em Minaçu (GO) afeta moradores e meio ambiente
[click to view]

Relatório do Grupo de Trabalho da Comissão de Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento Sustentável da Câmara dos Deputados destinado à análise das implicações do uso do amianto no Brasil
[click to view]

Links

Uso do amianto será debatido na Comissão de Direitos Humanos
[click to view]

Sob pressão, amianto prospera em Minaçu
[click to view]

Amianto, a fibra que mata
[click to view]

Minaçu, a cidade que respira o amianto
[click to view]

Media Links

Associação Brasileira dos Expostos ao Amianto
[click to view]

Other Documents

[click to view]

Minaçu Mine, Goiás
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorGrettel Navas, ENVJustice Project
Last update13/07/2017
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