Anti-GMO Struggle, Portugal


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">In 2003, an act was approved to allow the cultivation of some genetically modified organisms-GMOs in Portugal.</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">In 2004, Algarve was the first region of the country to be declared as a free transgenic zone (this included 16 municipalities of the region and took place through the Association of Municipalities of the Algarve-AMAL). In 2005, an other act was approved to allow the coexistence of genetically modified varieties with conventional crops and with organic production. The possibility of this coexistence is questioned by several actors because of the risk of cross-contamination.<br/><br/>Only in 2007 a decree made it possible to establish free transgenic zones by farmers decision or municipal initiative, however the decision on the application for free zone establishment must have been approved by an absolute majority of the members present at the meeting of local municipal assembly. This decision didn't become universally accepted but became an important tool in opposition on GMOs.<br/><br/>In 2007, the existence of a transgenic maize production by Monsanto in Herdade da Lameira, in Silves, region of Algarve was denounced. The president of the Greater Metropolitan Area of Algarve-AMAL and the Association for Defense of Cultural and Environmental Heritage of Algarve-ALMARGEM positioned against this kind of crop. On August 17th, 2007, about 150 people organized into Movement Verde Eufémia and travelled to Herdade da Lameira to protest against the cultivation of transgenic crops and destroyed a culture of approximately 50 hectares. The act was supported by a Left Block Party-BE representative and environmental associations that together declared not to share the methods used by the Movement Verde Eufémia, but recognized the need to discuss and combat the planting of GMOs in Portugal. This action was criticized and criminalized by the national press, but helped to highlight the need to discuss the transgenic issue in the country. The Platform of Transgenic Out has been working on this issue since 1999. It is composed by associations, environmental groups and the agricultural sector. Its field of action includes activities such as workshops given by activists, protests in several events, participation in public bodies meetings, questioning government actions and decisions, conducting information sessions, lectures, conferences, awareness campaigns and debate among the population and public administration, dissemination of research, interventions in schools and universities, communications with farmers, supermarkets and consumers that produce and consume GMOs, etc. In 2013, for example, the ten largest Portuguese hypermarkets were visited in the cities of Lisbon and Porto to evaluate the food supply containing GMOs and information was available to consumers to do their shopping. In Portugal, the main issues involved the production, importation and consumption of GMOs and the resistance to this crop are: to combat the increasing maize transgenic plantation and give information about these crops, boycott the GMO foods consumption; support the campaign "free seeds" in articulation with the European movement, oppose the monopoly of seeds by multinationals; to fight and warn about the use of herbicides in public areas and the increasing use of herbicide with glyphosate. To these questions are added the free transgenic zone theme which several municipalities of Algarve and other 27 chambers in the continent were declared free zones. In 2011, the island of Madeira and Azores, in 2012, declared themselves GMOs free zones.<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Anti-GMO Struggle, Portugal</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/portugal">Portugal</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>LOW country/state level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>GMOs<br /> Biopiracy and bio-prospection<br /> Intensive food production (monoculture and livestock)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/corn-maize'>Corn/Maize</a><br />Genetically Modified Seeds Gm Maize Mon810</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The main variety cultivated is GM maize MON810 (Monsanto) .</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> – In 2007: 4199 ha of MON 810 out of a total of 116 700 ha of maize 3.6%<br/><br/>– In 2008: 15% increase to 4839 ha <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>all the Portuguese citizens</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>01/01/1999</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/monsanto-corporation'>Monsanto Corporation <small>(Monsanto Co)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Ministério da Agricultura, Câmaras Municipais, Associações de Municipios, Direções Regionais de Agricultura, governos regionais</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Movimento Verde Eufémia<br/><br/>Plataforma Transgênicos Fora <br/><br/>Regional movements (anti GMO and environmental associations in general), small conventional farmers and organic farmers.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Social movements<br /> Local scientists/professionals</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches<br /> Property damage/arson<br /> Boycotts of companies-products</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Food insecurity (crop damage), Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Air pollution, Genetic contamination, Global warming, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Soil erosion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Infectious diseases, Malnutrition, Other environmental related diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>Studies indicate liver and kidney deficiencies and hormonal deregulation resulting of GMO corn consumption.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Criminalization of activists<br /> Institutional changes<br /> Repression<br /> Strengthening of participation<br /> Application of existing regulations</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Giving information and to discuss about the implications of production and consumption of GMOs aiming to boycott the non-conscious consumption of GMOs.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Yes</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Even though it is possible to produce and consume GMOs in Portugal, the pressing movements and protests made possible to have a little more control over what happens or at least more transparency (although it´s still a very closed process).</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> regula o cultivo de variedades geneticamente modificadas, visando assegurar a sua coexistência com culturas convencionais e com o modo de produção biológico<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.cna.pt/dossiers/dossierogms/n_decretolei160_21set05.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Portaria nº 1611/2007 de 20-12-2007. Regula o estabelecimento e zonas livres de transgênicos em Portugal<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://bdjur.almedina.net/item.php?field=node_id&value=1282795" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Decreto-Lei n.72/2003 de 10-04, transpôs a Directiva Europeia n. 2001/18/CE relativa à libertação deliberada no ambiente de organismos geneticamente modificados.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.iapmei.pt/iapmei-leg-03.php?lei=1680" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> VIEIRA, Luís Miguel Teixeira. Dissertação de Mestrado em Cidadania Ambiental E Participação Não-Violência Activa Movimentos Ambientais e a Mobilização Social em Portugal A Não-Violência Activa como Método de Participação Social Ambiental Estudo de Caso–O Caso do Milho Transgénico de Silves. Universidade Aberta, Lisboa, 2011.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://repositorioaberto.uab.pt/bitstream/10400.2/1872/1/Disserta%C3%A7%C3%A3o%20Mestrado.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Eurobarometer about perception of GMO by the european citizens<br/><a class="refanch small" href="ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_341_en.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> USDA Foreign Agricultural Service–Grain Report: Global agriculture information network. Portugal: Biotechnology Annual, 8 Abr. 2013<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Portugal%20Biotech%20Standing%20Report_Madrid_Portugal_6-19-2012.pdf." target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> SILVA, Margarida. Portuguese GMO FREE Coalition. Power Point, 24 Abr. 2009<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.gmo-free-regions.org/fileadmin/files/gmo-free-regions/Portugal/Silva_24_4_Portugal_n_GMO_ppt_en.pdf." target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> PRICE Project (Practical<br />Implementation of Coexistence in Europe), Portugal<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://price-coexistence.com/page/downloads/Supply_chain_of_maize_bread_in_Portugal.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> PONTE, João André Moniz (2014) A Cadeia de Abastecimento da Broa de Milho em Portugal e a Aplicação das Leis de Coexistência, Dissertação de mestrado em Engenharia Agronómica, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.repository.utl.pt/bitstream/10400.5/6981/1/Dissertação%20JAMP_Definitiva.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> AGÊNCIA LUSA. Activistas destroem um hectare de milho transgénico. Jornal Público, 17 Ago. 2007.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.publico.pt/local/noticia/activistas-destroem-um-hectare-de-milho-transgenico-em-silves-1302474" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> GMo free regions - Portugal<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.gmo-free-regions" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> News: embaixador norteamericano contesta possivel zona livre de transgenicos nos Açores<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.publico.pt/ciencia/noticia/embaixador-norteamericano-contesta-possivel-zona-livre-de-transgenicos-nos-acores-1528833" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Plataforma Transgénicos Fora<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://stopogm.net" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Danger of GMO<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Z6-fK875nM" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Movimento Verde Eufemia - GMO mowing Action @ Silves, Portugal<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://archive.org/details/Desobedienciaogm-en_xvid2000c500" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Açores protests<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://videos.sapo.pt/7QJN6MwafF6OZa71Jd87" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> GMO - how to recognize<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://rr.sapo.pt/informacao_detalhe.aspx?fid=94&did=116878" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Silves action<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QuwkGCH2ZQw" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/A_ANS_Silves_V1.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/A_ANS_Silves_V2.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/84-1999_05_27serounaoserTrang_nicos.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Comments</td><td>The GPS refers to center Portugal as this case refers to the anti-gmo sttrugle all over the country. Silves action GPS 37.195815 -8.440443 </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Inês Ribeiro, Lays Silva and Lúcia Fernandes </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>09/03/2015</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
Comments