Atenco International Airport, Mexico


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">San Salvador Atenco is a rural community thirty kilometers from Mexico City. In 2001, then-President Vicente Fox planned the construction of an International airport in Atenco, and issued a decree to remove local residents. The local communities were not consulted and began occupying the streets to defend their lands. The project would entail the loss of 80% of their land and would also lead to the displacement of at least 56.000 people. A strong movement called the Peoples Front in Defense of the Land (FPDT) was launched after popular unrest, and eventually obtained a legal injunction blocking the displacement decree in 2002. The victory was not achieved without collateral effects. On May 2nd and 4th 2006 a police repression operation was launched with the purpose of breaking up the FPDT resistance. Several people were killed or injured by the police. More than 200 peoples were imprisoned, among them 27 women who were raped during their detention. Twelve activist leaders remained in jail until 2010 after the Supreme Court ordered their freeing. They were charged with alleged kidnapping of the State officials and police officers in San Salvador Atenco. The Court declared that the Federal State has not ensured the citizens right to a fair trial. The Court also defined as illegal the evidence brought to trial. However, the civil and human rights organizations declare that the sentence is still incomplete, because it gives no justice to the 27 women raped, and does not provide an actual punishment for those responsible for the events of May 3rd and 4th, 2006.</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">On September 2nd 2014, the new elected head of State Enrique Peña Nieto brought back the project to life. The FPDT response has been to renew their struggle and mobilizations against the project keep multiplying since the presidential announcement. Atenco inhabitants’ lands are once again under threat. Since a new law was passed at Atenco council to parcel up the land into private parcels and according to FPDT this represents a strategy to scrape off the land from the peasants’ hands little by little. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Atenco International Airport, Mexico</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/mexico">Mexico</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Estado de Mexico </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>San Salvador Atenco</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Infrastructure and Built Environment</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Urban development conflicts<br /> Ports and airport projects</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /><a href='/commodity/tourism-services'>Tourism services</a><br />Transportation Services</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">The huge airport facility would cover 54,000 hectares, affecting the three municipalities of Atenco, Texcoco and Chimalhuacan. The displacement decree provided compensation of Mex $ 7,20 (around US$ 0,57) per square meter for arable and residential land, and included no grants or allowances and no proposals for re-settling residents or finding them new jobs. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>54000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>2800000000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>residents of Atenco, Texcoco and Chimalhuacan</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/atacomulco-group'>Atacomulco Group</a> - <small> lobbying activity</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Federal Government of Mexico, PFP - Messico, National Police of Mexico, CONAGUA - Mexico, Supreme Court, Superior Court of Justice of the State of Mexico</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/international-civil-commission-on-human-rights-observation'>International Civil Commission on Human Rights Observation <small>(CCIODH)</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Amnesty International, FPDT (Frente de Pueblos en Defensa de la Tierra) - Mexico, Texcoco Florists - Mexico, La Otra Campaa Zapatista - Mexico</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> International ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Social movements<br /> Ethnically/racially discriminated groups<br /> Religious groups<br /> </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Blockades<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches<br /> Threats to use arms<br /> Occupation of buildings/public spaces<br /> Arguments for the rights of mother nature<br /> Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Deaths</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in violence and crime, Militarization and increased police presence, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Proposed (exploration phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Deaths<br /> <br /> Court decision (failure for environmental justice)<br /> Negotiated alternative solution<br /> Repression<br /> Criminalization of activists<br /> Application of existing regulations<br /> Court decision (victory for environmental justice)<br /> Migration/displacement<br /> New legislation<br /> Violent targeting of activists</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Not Sure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The Government suspended the displacement decree, thus cancelling the entire project. The proyect has been reactivated by the new Government and new strategies are being implemented trying to displace the local population. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Informe especial de la Comision Nacional de los Derechos Humanos, Mexico (in Spanish)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.cndh.org.mx/sites/all/doc/Informes/Especiales/2006_texcoco.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> H. Guillen Romo, Mexico frente a la mundializacion neoliberal, Era, 2005.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Marco global de referencia para la accion juridica en la defensa del medio ambiente. Los derechos humanos contra las represas y otros proyectos neoliberales, CIEPAC, 2005.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> M. Durand, La construccion de la democracia en Mexico. Movimientos sociales y ciudadania, Siglo XXI, 1994.<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institutional_Revolutionary_Party" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Conagua, Comision Nacional del Agua<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.cna.gob.mx" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Pronunciamientos por los Presos y las Presas de Atenco, June 20th, 2007 (in Spanish)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://caracol-intergalaktico-vnzla.blogspot.com/2007/06/mexico-pronunciamientos-por-los-presos.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Puebla-Panama_Plan" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://enlacezapatista.ezln.org.mx/category/la-otra-campana/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frente_de_Pueblos_en_Defensa_de_la_Tierra" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Testimonios de golpes, violaciones y detenciones arbitrarias en San Salvador Atenco, Gibler J.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.narconews.com/Issue41/articulo1783.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Otra_Campaa" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Articulo en la Jornada<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2002/07/30/017a1pol.php?origen=opinion.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Reprimen marcha campesina de Atenco; hay 33 lesionados, La Jornada<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2002/07/12/052n2pol.php?origen=index.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Atenco: Inicio de la campaña nacional e internacional "Justicia y Libertad para Atenco", Febrero 2009<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://mexico.indymedia.org/?article408" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.presidencia.gob.mx/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Blog of El Frente de Pueblos en Defensa de la Tierra (in Spanish)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://atencofpdt.blogspot.mx/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Mexico: San Salvador Atenco Fights for Land, Resists Proposed Airport, by Davies J., September 2014<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://upsidedownworld.org/main/mexico-archives-79/5055-mexico-san-salvador-atenco-fights-for-land-resists-proposed-airport" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Could History Repeat Itself with Mexico City’s Ambitious Airport Plan? Knoll, A., July 2015<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://news.vice.com/article/could-history-repeat-itself-with-mexico-citys-ambitious-airport-plan" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Airport protests in Atenco in Mexico brutally repressed, March 2015, AirportWatch Europe<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.airportwatcheurope.com/?p=275" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Atneco inhabitants defending their land durig the mobilizations in September 2014</strong> Land yes, Planes no! sopitas.com<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/tierra_si_aviones_no.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Women of Atenco protesting against the airport proyect</strong> The peasants protest with their machetes as a symbol of defense of their lands, revoluciontrespuntocero<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Women_of_Ateco_protesting_against_the_airport_proyect.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Lucie Greyl</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>27/10/2015</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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