Bafokeng Platinum mine, South Africa

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The Royal Bafokeng Nation also owns one of South Africas largest community-based investment companies, which channels revenue derived from platinum deposits into a broad investment portfolio that in turn funds an aggressive social development program for 150,000 people living in twenty-nine rural villages. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> Yet now land dispossession by the Bafokeng Traditional Council in favour of mining operations will displace about 500 households, and will change the two hundred year old cultural and traditional systems of the community and has led to increased local conflict. <br/><br/> For political and administrative convenience, state power and control has historically been vested with the chiefs. Other than the blatant bribing of the chiefs, the mining complex has successfully used migrant labour to destabilise and alter traditional systems of governance. <br/><br/> The Bafokeng Traditional Council in Rustenburg has submitted to the power of the platinum mining complex and no longer observes its traditional systems of governance. The Traditional Community, led by a chief, is in the process of urbanising and corporatizing its traditional areas and systems much to to the chagrin of its member citizens. <br/><br/> Within the new democratic political dispensation in the Constitutional State of South Africa, the Bafokeng chief continue to impose headmen onto rural communities who have disputed his traditional authority over them. This done to dispossess communities control over land, governance structures, and agricultural activities in favour of platinum mineral extraction. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Bafokeng Platinum mine, South Africa</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/south-africa">South Africa</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>North West Province</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Rustenburg Local Municipality</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Mineral processing<br /> Mineral ore exploration<br /> Water access rights and entitlements</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td>Platinum </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">South Africa provides 71% of global demand for platinum. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> So far the mine has milled 2375 kt of platinum. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>2000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>5000-10000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/anglo-american-platinum'>Anglo American Platinum</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/south-africa'><small>South Africa</small></a><br /><a href='/company/anglo-american'>Anglo American</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-kingdom'><small>United Kingdom</small></a><br /><a href='/company/royal-bafokeng-holdings'>Royal Bafokeng Holdings</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/south-africa'><small>South Africa</small></a><br /><a href='/company/royal-bafokeng-nation'>Royal Bafokeng Nation</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/south-africa'><small>South Africa</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Department of Minerals and Energy, Department of Land Reform and Rural Development, Rustenburg Local Municipality</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/world-bank'>The World Bank <small>(WB)</small></a><br /><a href='/institution/fondo-monetario-internacional'>International Monetary Fund <small>(FMI)</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Legal Resources Centre; Benchmarks South Africa; Bafokeng Land Buyers Association</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> Social movements</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes<br /> Land occupation<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Sabotage<br /> Shareholder/financial activism.<br /> Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Mine tailing spills</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Occupational disease and accidents</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Loss of livelihood, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Planned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Corruption<br /> Repression<br /> Violent targeting of activists<br /> Militarization</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Land Restitution, equity shareholding, observance of traditional rules</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The traditional authority employs its security company to harass and intimidate activist leaders into submission. It is the intention of the traditional authority to change the traditional systems in favour of unsustainable, destructive mining operations.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Act, Restitution of Land Rights Act, Traditional Leadership and Governance Framework Act<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> North West High Court case Setuke vs Royal Bafokeng Nation<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Map of proposed mining projects within the Bafokeng area <br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="https://docs.google.com/open?id=0B72gJZ75Jz7td0ljQjFQZndQR3c" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Othusitse Rapoo</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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