Biofuels plantation farming in Dakatcha, Kenya

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">An Italian-owned company, Kenya Jatropha Energy Ltd(KJEL) had proposed to convert the Dakatcha Woodland to plant Jatropha curcas, a biofuel crop on 50,000 hectares, and started clearing part of the woodland and cutting indigenous vegetation even before an EIA was made public for comments. There was strong opposition from Nature Kenya and other institutions because the project had already showed lack of accountability; first, the site hosts rare and threatened species such as the bird Clarkes Weaver. Then, jatropha may produce more greenhouse gases than it will save; finally, there was no comprehensive biofuels policy in Kenya. As a result, the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA) suspended the project because of environmental concerns, but suggested to scale it down to pilot level in order to prove sustainability before an EIA licence could be issued. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> Later, contradictory stories started appearing in the national press, some claiming the project was going to be licensed while others stating that the Environment PS had cancelled the licence. This prompted Nature Kenya to ask NEMA for an official position on the EIA. NEMA informed on 13th Feb 2012 that they did not approve the project due to no evidence of local community involvement; there was no land use plan for Dakatcha; and insufficient data on the viability of Jatropha cultivation in Kenya. The proponent was advised to explore an alternative site for the project. <br/><br/> However since the decision, KJEL moved their machinery to a more remote part of Dakatcha woodlands, and Nature Kenya continued to monitor the situation. In March 2013, the Company was reported to have moved from Dakatcha. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Biofuels plantation farming in Dakatcha, Kenya</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/kenya">Kenya</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Coast Province</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Malindi District</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>MEDIUM regional level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Agro-fuels and biomass energy plants<br /> Land acquisition conflicts<br /> Deforestation<br /> Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/ethanol'>Ethanol</a><br /><a href='/commodity/jatropha'>Jatropha</a><br /><a href='/commodity/biological-resources'>Biological resources</a><br /><a href='/commodity/carbon-offsets'>Carbon offsets</a><br /><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">Kenya Jatropha Energy Ltd proposed to lease 50,000 Hectares of Trust Land in Bungale area from the County Council of Malindi for Jatropha Cultivation within an initial period of 33 years. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> The project aimed at meeting demand for a production chain for vegetable oil for the companys expansion needs in Italy as well as local energy needs. <br/><br/> The plants life cycle, i.e. from sowing to last processing would make it possible to produce 30% export to Italy and 70% for local use. <br/><br/> A part of the Jatropha oil production, bio-diesel would also be produced through a transesterification process to fuel vehicles locally. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>50000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2009</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/kenya-jatropha-energy-ltd'>Kenya Jatropha Energy Ltd</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/italy'><small>Italy</small></a> - <small> belonging to Nuove Iniziative Industriali, Italy, of the Orlandi family</small><br /><a href='/company/nuove-iniziative-industriali-srl'>Nuove Iniziative Industriali Srl</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/italy'><small>Italy</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>National Environment Management Authority , Kenya Wildlife Service; Ministry of Local Government, Ministry of Agriculture, Water Resources management Authority</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/finnish-embassy'>Finnish Embassy</a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/finland'><small>Finland</small></a><br /><a href='/institution/spanish-embassy'>Spanish Embassy</a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/spain'><small>Spain</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Action Aid International, Community Development Trust Fund, Nature Kenya, BirdLife International, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, East African Wild Life Society, Kenya Wetlands Forum, Kenya Forests Working Group, A Rocha Kenya, Community Based Organisations</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Pastoralists<br /> Local scientists/professionals</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Global warming, Soil erosion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Loss of livelihood, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Stopped</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Negotiated alternative solution<br /> New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>-The developer should explore alternative sites for the project</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Yes</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>NEMA denied the proponent a licence due to no evidence of local community involvement; no land use plan for Dakatcha; and insufficient data on the viability of Jatropha cultivation in Kenya. The proponent was advised to explore an alternative site for the project.<br/><br/>Though the company had decided moved to a remote area in Dakatcha after NEMAs decision; it eventually withdrew its operations in Dakatcha and moved out in March 2013<br/><br/></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Constitution of the Republic of Kenya, 2010; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> National Land policy; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Forests Act, 2005; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Forest Policy; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Wildlife (Conservation and Management) Act of 1976 ; -Environmental Management and Co-ordination Act (EMCA) of 1999; -Environmental Policy;<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Water Act, 2002; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Water Policy (National Policy on Water Resources Management); <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Agriculture Act, Cap 318; <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Local Government Act, Cap 265; <br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Action Aid Report<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Gli Arraffa Terre, il coinvolgimento italiano nel business del land grab, Re:Common<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Nature Kenya <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Royal Society for the Protection of Birds Reports <br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Action Aid: <br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Nature Kenya:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> RSPB:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Birdlife:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> A Rocha Kenya:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Serah Munguti</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>