Bioshape Kilwa Jatropha Project, Tanzania

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">The Dutch company BioShape acquired a 50-year lease in 2006 for 81,000 ha of bio-diverse land in the Tanzanian Kilwa district to cultivate jatropha at a site located to the north of the Mavuji river, about 20km inland from Kilwa Masoko. It planned to sell biodiesel to the European Union market on the back of an EU Renewable Energy Directive that set a 10 per cent binding target for use of renewable energy in the transport sector by 2020. Huge tracts of land were cleared, much of it ecologically sensitive woodland. But one of the main investors in BioShape, Eneco Energie BV, pulled out in early 2009. In November 2009, the company ceased operations[2]. Areas of dispute stretch back to the beginning of the project, with allegations of irregularities in the Environmental Impact Assessment. Other concerns were around food security, because people left farming to work for Bioshape, where there were complaints of long working hours and poor pay. There were also concerns about the level of compensation paid for land as payments did not meet expectations. Furthermore, there were allegations that Bioshape was more interested in the land for its timber value as timber from forests cleared was exported. <br/><br/></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Bioshape Kilwa Jatropha Project, Tanzania</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/tanzania">Tanzania</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Lindi Region</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Kilwa district</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>MEDIUM regional level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Land acquisition conflicts<br /> Deforestation<br /> Logging and non timber extraction<br /> Agro-fuels and biomass energy plants</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/jatropha'>Jatropha</a><br /><a href='/commodity/timber'>Timber</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">According to figures quoted by Inter Press Services, which the agency said came from a confidential business plan, Bioshape expected to earn up to $6 to 7-million in profits from logging and to use this money to partly subsidise its biofuel project. About 225 cubic metres of miombo timber was harvested from 70 hectares. The Bioshape concession included between 200,000 and 800,000 cubic metres of wood worth $50-150-million[4]. Bioshape estimated that it would employ 10,000 people, 3,000 from outside the district[6]. In terms of compensation, BioShape gave local authorities US$676,000, but only 40 per cent of this amount reached the farmers, with the rest going to the local government authority. Despite claims that biofuels could reduce carbon dioxide emissions, critics noted that the EIA had no life cycle analysis or evidence that cutting down forests, replacing it with jatropha and transporting it to Europe would result in carbon dioxide emission reductions. <br/><br/></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>81000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>9600000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2006</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/bioshape'>Bioshape</a><br /><a href='/company/bio-shape-tanzania-limited'>Bio-Shape Tanzania Limited</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/tanzania'><small>Tanzania</small></a><br /><a href='/company/kempen-and-co'>Kempen and Co</a> - <small> a merchant bank</small><br /><a href='/company/eneco-energy'>Eneco Energy</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Ministry for Lands and Human Settlement, Ministry of Agriculture Tanzania, Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism Tanzania, National Environmental Management Council</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Land Rights Research and Resources Institute, WWF, Resource Extraction Monitoring (REM), Independent Monitor of Forest Law Enforcement and, Governance in Tanzania, Tanzania Forest Conservation Group</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LOW (some local organising)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Pastoralists</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Malnutrition</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Specific impacts on women, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Stopped</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area<br /> Withdrawal of company/investment<br /> It has been suggested that land acquired by BioShape should be transferred back to village level under the Village Land Act, 1999[1].</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Instead of following an approach that seeks to attract foreign investors to the agricultural sector, activists believe the government should facilitate the development of the pastoral sector[1].</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>While Bioshape has ceased operations in the area, outstanding issues include complaints about compensation and the clearing of forests. This project is an example of how biofuel projects - which often claim job creation potential - have failed to deliver.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> National Biofuel Guidelines<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Village Land Act, 1999<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Land Act 1999<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> [1] Land Rights Research and Resources Institute (2010). Accumulation by land dispossession and labour devaluation in Tanzania. Available at . Accessed 29 January 2013.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="landforafricanwomen.org" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [2] Friends of the Earth International (2010). Jatropha: money doesnt grow on trees. Available at Accessed 29 January 2013.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://bit.ly/WpEAuA." target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [3] Independent Monitor of Forest Law Enforcement and Governance in Tanzania (2009). Available at: Accessed 29 January 2013.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://bit.ly/WyGRB4." target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [4] Valentino, Stefano (2011). Tanzanias biofuel projects promise proves barren. Available at: Accessed 29 January 2013.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://bit.ly/T4iuOv." target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [5] Peter G. Veit, Mercedes Stickler, Candy Schibli and Catherine Easton (2012). Biofuel Investments Threaten Local Land Rights in Tanzania. Available at: Accessed 29 January 2013.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://bit.ly/TRiKCh." target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [6] Broadhurst, Tom (2011). Biofuels and Sustainability: A Case Study from Tanzania. Available at: Accessed 3 February 2013.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://bit.ly/11CX624." target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> wa Simbeye, Finnigan (2010). This Dutch firm is cheating on biofuels. Available at Accessed 29 January 2013.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://bit.ly/WuuVTR." target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> World Wide Fund for Nature (2009). Biofuel Industry Study, Tanzania. Available at: Accessed 3 February 2013.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://bit.ly/UOX7Ax." target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> See for a number of photos related to the project. Accessed 3 February 2013.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://bit.ly/TugMWU" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> PHOTOS:<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Patrick Burnett</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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