Port of Newcastle and Break Free 2016 blockade, Australia

Break Free 2016 blockade of world's largest coal export port in Newcastle, Australia, stops ships for a day and highlights impacts of global warming, particularly sea level rise on Pacific Island Nations.


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"> New South Wales is one of the world’s major coal exporters and the port of Newcastle is the world’s largest coal export port. The port was privatised through a 98-year lease for $1.75 billion from the NSW government to Port of Newcastle Investments, comprising Hastings Funds Management and China Merchants Group (NSW Government, Treasury Department). Anti-coal campaigners in Australia contest its primary use as the world biggest coal export hub. On 8 May 2016, anti-coal activists gathered at the port and Sandgate Bridge railway line as part of the global “Break Free from Fossil Fuels” actions, #BreakFree16. 1,500 activists gathered in Newcastle and hundreds kayaked into the shipping channel to block coal ships from entering and leaving the harbour; while around 70 protesters at Sandgate Bridge blocked a coal train in a day of civil disobedience (Davidson 2016). In addition to the blockade, protesters climbed vessels and infrastructure, abseiled and hung banners calling for politicians to “Make Coal History”. It was reported that 66 people were arrested including 57 people at Sandgate (Code and Marchese 2016) and the events of the day have been recorded on the Break Free Australia website: https://australia.breakfree2016.org/. The purpose of #Breakfree16 was to call for action on climate change globally, to break free from reliance on fossil fuels and rapidly transition to renewable energy. The messages expressed by activists during #BreakFree16 in Newcastle included the need to: wind back coal use, stop new coal mines, reinforce that coal mining is a local as well as global issue through the contribution of coal production and consumption to global warming, highlight the threat of rising sea levels on nations in the Pacific islands, support cultural survival, protect the environment for future generations, contest vested interests and power associated with the coal industry, and move the debate from the dichotomy of jobs verses environment. The actions were supported by numerous groups and individuals including Break Free Australia, Greenpeace, 350.org, The Pacific Climate Warriors, Climate Angels, and The Greens political party. Pacific Island Nations have expressed frustration at Australia’s lack of commitment to mitigating climate change and the plight of their islands that are already affected by rising sea levels and extreme weather events. As a result Pacific Island Nations were central to the protest and five wooden canoes from Tonga, Vanuatu, Tokelau, Fiji and the Solomon Islands were part of the blockade (Connell 2016). The day and location were both significant. The day marked the commencement of the 2016 Federal election campaign where the Liberal government was fighting for re-election, and successfully elected in July, regardless of their pro-coal agenda. The Greens leader Richard Di Natale attended the protest and noted that Bill Shorten, the leader of the Labor Party, was “out at a mine kicking off this election campaign” (Connell, Carr, Kirkwood 2016). The Port of Newcastle is the largest coal export port in the world. The export coal industry generates $54.6 billion in Australia and directly employs around 28,000 people (Franks et al 2010) and $13.2 billion in New South Wales (NSW Government 2016). It is also the site of the first export of any product in Australia, which was coal in 1799, only 11 years after “settlement” (New South Wales Minerals Council 2013). This provides an indication of the long term and significant entrenchment of coal in Australia’s infrastructure and economy.     </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Port of Newcastle and Break Free 2016 blockade, Australia</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/australia">Australia</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>New South Wales</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Newcastle</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Coal extraction and processing<br /> Ports and airport projects</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/coal'>Coal</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">New South Wales is one of the world’s major coal exporters and the port of Newcastle is the world’s largest coal export port. The port was privatised through a 98-year lease for $1.75 billion from the NSW government to Port of Newcastle Investments, comprising Hastings Funds Management and China Merchants Group (NSW Government, Treasury Department)</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">Resources and economic value<br/><br/>- In 2015/16 coal exports were a record 159 million tonnes<br/><br/>- In 2015/16 coal exports were valued at $13.2 billion <br/><br/>(NSW Government 2016)<br/><br/>Overview information provided by the Port of Newcastle:<br/><br/>- 216 years of commercial shipping<br/><br/>- Operates 24 hours per day, 365 days per year<br/><br/>- More than 25 different cargoes<br/><br/>- 2,169 vessel visits for 2014<br/><br/>- 20 operational berths<br/><br/>- Total land holdings of 792 hectares, including 200 hectares of vacant port land available for development<br/><br/>- River port with a tidal range of 2 metres<br/><br/>- Main channel depth of 15.2 metres<br/><br/>(Port of Newcastle (a) 2014)<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>792 hectares</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>08/05/2016</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">End Date</td><td>08/05/2016</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/port-of-newcastle'>Port of Newcastle</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/australia'><small>Australia</small></a> - <small>Owner of the Port of Newcastle where the Break Free 2016 protest and blockade was held</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>New South Wales Government Department of Industry, Resources and Energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>- Breakfree 2016, https://breakfree2016.org/<br/><br/>- Greenpeace, http://www.greenpeace.org/australia/en/<br/><br/>- 350.org<br/><br/>- First Nations peoples<br/><br/>- Climate Angels, https://climacts.org.au/tag/climate-angels/<br/><br/>- The Greens political party, http://greens.org.au/<br/><br/>- Climate Action Network, http://www.climatenetwork.org/<br/><br/>- Friends of the Earth, http://www.foei.org/</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>Mobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Blockades<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Occupation of buildings/public spaces</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Global warming</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Other Health impacts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>Australia is already experiencing the impacts of global warming through extreme weather events, particularly heatwaves, and the frequency and intensity of wildfire, both of which have caused deaths. "Other Health impacts" has been selected as the continuation of coal exports exacerbates the potential for these events.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Other socio-economic impacts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>The entrenchment of the coal industry in the Australian economy, which perpetuates the industry at the expense of a transition to renewable energy and continues contributing to greenhouse gas emissions, and therefore global warming and climate change.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Coal exports are carrying on uninterrupted.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Environmental organisations advocate for a rapid transition to renewable energy, the winding back of coal mine, and the cessation of any new coal mines.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Not Sure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The action was successful at raising awareness of the impacts of coal, including on Pacific Island Nations, and it successfully stopped shipping of coal for the day. The timing was important given that it was the commencement of the 2016 Federal election campaign. However, the struggle to transition from coal will be a long one in Australia, as evidenced by the re-election of the Liberal Party, which is committed to coal and is hampering the transition to renewable energy.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Franks, D. M., Brereton, D., and Moran, C. J., (2010), “Managing the cumulative impacts of coal mining on regional communities and environments in Australia”, Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal, 28:4, 299-312<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Break Free Australia, (2016), Break Free Australia website, [online], https://australia.breakfree2016.org/, [accessed 23 October 2016]<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://australia.breakfree2016.org/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Code, B., and Marchese, D., (2016), “Protesters descend on Newcastle as flotilla attempts to stop coal exports”, [online], ABC News website, http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-05-08/newcastle-anti-coal-break-free-flotilla-protest/7394154, [accessed 23 October 2016]<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-05-08/newcastle-anti-coal-break-free-flotilla-protest/7394154" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Connell, T., (2016), “Island canoes in Newcastle climate protest”, [online], Newcastle Herald website, http://www.theherald.com.au/story/3890505/paddling-against-coal-tide-video-poll/?cs=305, [accessed 23 October 2016]<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.theherald.com.au/story/3890505/paddling-against-coal-tide-video-poll/?cs=305" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Connell, T., Carr, M., and Kirkwood, I., (2016), “Newcastle harbour coal blockade: live updates | photos, video”, [online], Newcastle Herald website, http://www.theherald.com.au/story/3894106/newcastle-harbour-coal-blockade/, [accessed 23 October 2016]<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.theherald.com.au/story/3894106/newcastle-harbour-coal-blockade/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Davidson, H., (2016), “Dozens arrested as anti-fossil fuel protesters join Australian coal blockade”, [online], The Guardian website, https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/may/08/hundreds-of-anti-fossil-fuel-protesters-join-australian-coal-blockade, [accessed 23 October 2016]<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/may/08/hundreds-of-anti-fossil-fuel-protesters-join-australian-coal-blockade" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> New South Wales Government, (2016), “Coal in NSW”, [online], Department of Industry, Resources and Energy website, http://www.resourcesandenergy.nsw.gov.au/investors/investment-opportunities/coal/coal, [accessed 23 October 2016]<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.resourcesandenergy.nsw.gov.au/investors/investment-opportunities/coal/coal" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> New South Wales Minerals Council, (2013), “NSW mining history”, [online], New South Wales Minerals Council NSW Mining website, http://www.nswmining.com.au/industry/nsw-mining-history, [accessed 23 October 2016]<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.nswmining.com.au/industry/nsw-mining-history" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Port of Newcastle (a), (2014), “About the Port”, [online], Port of Newcastle website, http://www.portofnewcastle.com.au/Company-Information/About-the-Port.aspx, [accessed 23 October 2016]<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.portofnewcastle.com.au/Company-Information/About-the-Port.aspx" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Port of Newcastle (b), (2014), “Company Information”, [online], Port of Newcastle website, http://www.portofnewcastle.com.au/Company-Information/, [accessed 23 October 2016]<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.portofnewcastle.com.au/Company-Information/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> New South Wales Government, Treasury Department, "Long-term Lease of the Port of Newcastle. Frequently Asked Questions", http://www.treasury.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/123659/FAQs_-_Long-term_Lease_of_the_Port_of_Newcastle.pdf<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.treasury.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/123659/FAQs_-_Long-term_Lease_of_the_Port_of_Newcastle.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Video: May 8 - Newcastle Break Free from Fossil Fuels Blockade. https://australia.breakfree2016.org/<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://australia.breakfree2016.org/ " target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Hundreds of people gathered at Nobby's Beach as part of the 'Break Free' event. Supplied: Sally Newell</strong> Newcastle anti-coal protests<br />Hundreds of people gathered at Nobby's Beach as part of the 'Break Free' event. Supplied: Sally Newell<br />http://www.abc.net.au/news/2016-05-08/newcastle-anti-coal-protests/7394122<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/Breakfree16_Protest_Sally_Newell.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Australian Environmental Justice Project, Lisa de Kleyn, PhD Candidate, RMIT University, [email protected], https://www.foe.org.au/australian-environmental-justice-project</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>25/10/2016</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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