Lack of Green Space and the Bronx River Greenway project, USA

An historically depressed and polluted urban neighborhood in New York is finally developing alternatives to create green spaces and connect communities


Description
The South Bronx is an area of the New York City. The area saw a sharp decline in population, livable housing and quality of life in the late 1960s and the 1970s [1] contributing to its negative image. The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River which has been greatly impacted by industrial and residential wastes since the 1800s. Recent information has shown that every weekday, 15,000 trucks pass through the South Bronx neighborhood (and produce toxic air pollution) on their way to and from the world’s largest food distribution centers. Facilities in the South Bronx also handle 100% of the waste produced in the Bronx and 23% of all of the city’s commercial waste. Additionally, local air pollution is worsened by emissions from the four power plants in the area [2]. There has been increasing concern, activism and action surrounding the environmental burdens faced by this community. The movement gained strength and numbers in the 1990s [3] and has grown to see many positive changes in the area, notably an increase in the amount of greenspace and parks to support healthier lifestyles and environments.
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Basic Data
NameLack of Green Space and the Bronx River Greenway project, USA
CountryUnited States of America
ProvinceNew York
SiteSouth Bronx, New York
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Urban development conflicts
Establishment of reserves/national parks
Specific CommoditiesDomestic municipal waste
Industrial waste
real estates and urban spaces
Project Details and Actors
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Start Date01/01/1974
Relevant government actorsNYEDC, Congressman Serrano
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersPratt Center, Bronx River Watershed Alliance, Sustainable South Bronx, the Point CDC, Mothers on the Move, Youth Ministries for Peace and Justice
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups MobilizingLocal ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Women
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Recreational users
Forms of MobilizationDevelopment of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
Potential: Soil contamination
OtherAir Quality related figures:

- Facilities in the South Bronx also handle 100% of the waste produced in the Bronx and 23% of all of the city’s commercial waste.

- Every weekday, 15,000 trucks pass through the neighborhood – and produce toxic air pollution – on their way to and from the Hunts Point Market, one of the world’s largest food distribution centers.
Health ImpactsVisible: Deaths, Other environmental related diseases, Other Health impacts
OtherHigh rates of asthma and asthma-related deaths. High rates of obesity are also prevalent in this community.
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseEnvironmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Strengthening of participation
Development of AlternativesBronx River Greenway
Do you consider this as a success?Yes
Why? Explain briefly.The Bronx River Greenway project has been ongoing for quite some time and has the continued support of numerous organizations and Congressman Serrano. Environmental goods are finally being brought to a community suffering many environmental burdens.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

The United States Department of Justice - Overview of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
[click to view]

References

[4] ThinkProgress - ‘Environmental Racism’ And The Fight For Green Space In The South Bronx - Oct 9, 2014
[click to view]

[5] Congressman Jose Serrano - Environment
[click to view]

[1] The Bronx - Wikipedia
[click to view]

[2] Sustainable South Bronx - Our Mission
[click to view]

[3] Bronx River Alliance - Greenway
[click to view]

[6] Transforming the Southern Bronx River Watershed - Pratt Institute Center for Community and Environmental Development - May 2004
[click to view]

[7] Youth Ministries for Peace and Justice - Center for Community Development and Planning
[click to view]

Links

Bronx River Alliance - Strategies for Implementation
[click to view]

Pratt Center - Greening the South Bronx
[click to view]

Speech by Majora Carter - creator of Sustainable South Bronx
[click to view]

Blog post on importance of connecting the two parks
[click to view]

Blazing a green trail through the Bronx - CNN report - July 22, 2011
[click to view]

Stim Funds to Kickstart South Bronx Greenway - Before and After Image
[click to view]

Other Documents

Before/After photo of Lafayette Avenue in South Bronx Photo credit: Sustainable South Bronx
[click to view]

South Bronx Greenway Randalls Island Connector
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorBernadette Grafton and Paul Mohai, [email protected] and [email protected], University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment
Last update19/06/2015
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