Caffaro industry contamination in Brescia, Italy

Description
In the city of Brescia, a few hundred meters from the historic centre, the chemical industry Caffaro (since 1985 owned by Snia-BPD, then Snia S.p.A.) has been operating since 1906. The industry produced caustic soda (NaOH), from the 30s the activities were dedicated mainly to the fabrication of chlorine organ compounds, specialized from 1938 to 1984 in PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). The latter was the exclusive production in Italy thanks to the patent granted by Monsanto.
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Basic Data
NameCaffaro industry contamination in Brescia, Italy
CountryItaly
ProvinceLombardy Region
SiteBrescia
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Industrial and Utilities conflicts
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites
Chemical industries
Specific CommoditiesLand
Chemical products
Water
Industrial waste
Polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs
Project Details and Actors
Project Details
Initially the Caffaro produced caustic soda (NaOH), used to fabric soaps, textiles, paper. From the 30s the activities were mainly dedicated to the fabrication of chlorine derivatives, all substances toxic, carcinogenic and non-degradable. Some of them are known as POPs (persistent organic pollutants) or “Dirty Dozens” [10].
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Project Area (in hectares)700
Type of PopulationUrban
Potential Affected Population25,000
Start Date14/08/2001
Company Names or State EnterprisesCaffaro S.p.A from Italy
Snia S.p.A. from Italy
Relevant government actorsBrescia Municipality, Lombardy Region, Ministry of the Environment and Protection of Land and Sea, Lombardy Regional Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA Lombardia) http://ita.arpalombardia.it/ITA/index.asp, Local Health Unit of Brescia (ASL Brescia) http://www.aslbrescia.it/bin/index.php
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersComitato popolare contro l’inquinamento zona Caffaro (www.ambientebrescia.it) ; Rete Antinocività Brescia ( www.antinocivitabs.org ) ; Comitato per l’ambiente Brescia sud ( www.achab.info/acqua/)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LOW (some local organising)
When did the mobilization beginMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Local ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationCreation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Food insecurity (crop damage), Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Other Environmental impacts
OtherAfter 2001, several analysis of the soil have been carried out by the regional agency for the protection of the environment (ARPA). The studies proved the high PCB contamination of the area up to a maximum of 8.330 μg/kg (law limits 1-60 μg/kg). The dioxins pollution up to 3.322 ngTEQ/kg (law limits 10 ngTEQ/kg) [11]. Other substances highly contaminating lands, groundwater and surface water: mercury, carbon tetrachloride and DDT [12].
Health ImpactsVisible: Occupational disease and accidents, Other environmental related diseases, Other Health impacts
Potential: Deaths
OtherIncreased incidence of cancer among the population of Brescia is demonstrated by the reports of the National Health Institute, ISS (2011, 2014) [13].

In addition, scientific studies provided some evidence for associations between PCBs exposure and the higher risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) [14].
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Loss of landscape/sense of place
OtherEconomic damages for the loss of property value (land, houses).
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseLand demarcation
Court decision (undecided)
New legislation
Strengthening of participation
Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution
Under negotiation
New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study
Development of AlternativesLocal committees (Comitato popolare contro l’inquinamento della zona Caffaro; Comitato per l’ambiente Brescia Sud; Genitori scuola Deledda; Rete Antinocività Brescia) have been demanding for years a virtuous process for the reclamation of the Caffaro Site.

Committes demand a general reclamation plan that should include different polluted area (industrial site, groundwater, public and agricultural lands, private lands..). A plan of this magnitude requires the activation of extraordinary scientific and technical resources as well as a consistent and adequate funding. The reclamation project, including the re-use of the industrial site, should have access to European funds. It should be developed and monitored by a Technical and Scientific Committee, composed of independent experts. The institution responsible for the reclamation plan should be supported by political forces and should inform citizens and involve local committees in the reclamation process.
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.Over the years, local independent environmentalism has obtained significant results. Firstly, bringing out a disastrous environmental pollution remained hidden for decades. Secondly, protecting local population affected by pollution, through the dissemination of information and the pressure on institutions to stop the serious exposure to risk for human health. However, the most fundamental issue regard the reclamation process. Currently, although there were commitments for remediation circumscribed in some areas, there is not a general plan of reclamation and allocation of related resources, (needs estimated at hundreds of millions of euro). In addition, there is a lack of interest by the institutions to solve the serious problem.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

[5] Ordinanza Comune di Brescia, 2014
[click to view]

[7] Regione Lombardia, bollettino ufficiale. Caffaro Accordo Programma
[click to view]

Dlgs 152 del 3 aprile 2006, parte quarta, titolo quinto, Bonifiche dei siti inquinati, e successive modifiche ed integrazioni.

[4] Ordinanza Comune di Brescia, 2002
[click to view]

[2] L. 179 del 31 luglio 2002, Disposizioni in materia ambientale, art. 14.
[click to view]

References

[1]Marino Ruzzenenti, Un secolo di cloro e… PCB. Storia delle industrie Caffaro di Brescia, Jaca Book, Milano 2001, pp. 595
[click to view]

[3]Comitato Tecnico
[click to view]

[8] Article May 2014
[click to view]

[10] POPs regulation
[click to view]

[14] National Health Institute - ISS Report, SENTIERI, 2014
[click to view]

Marino Ruzzenenti, Caffaro di Brescia: un secolo di veleni, dossier di “Medicina Democratica”, n. 139/140, novembre-dicembre 2001/gennaio-febbraio 2002, pp. 28-64

[6] Article "PCDD/F and PCB in human serum of differently exposed population
groups of an Italian city", Chemosphere, 2008
[click to view]

Comitato popolare contro l'inquinamento “zona Caffaro”, Il “caso PCB”. Tutto quello che i cittadini devono sapere (e che l'Asl avrebbe dovuto spiegare), Brescia, 18 aprile 2002, pp. 16.

Asl Brescia, Il caso Caffaro. Un'analisi oggettiva, Asl Brescia, 3 maggio 2002, pp. 32.

Celestino Panizza e Paolo Ricci, Contaminazione da PCB: Brescia è piú inquinata di Seveso, in “Epidemiologia & Prevenzione”, n. 26, maggio-giugno 2002, pp. 145-153.

Marino Ruzzenenti, Caffaro: un secolo di veleni, in “Libertaria”, anno 5, n. 1, gennaio/marzo 2003, pp. 24-34.

Marino Ruzzenenti, Brescia – “caso Caffaro”: l'inquinamento dai terreni alla falda idrica, “Medicina Democratica”, n. 173/175, maggio-ottobre 2007, pp. 31-42.

Le zone morte: 5. Il caso “Caffaro”di Brescia, 2 giugno 2013, il Blog della Società Chimica Italiana
[click to view]

[9] Article on the lawsuit 2014
[click to view]

Links

Local Health Unit of Brescia (ASL Brescia)
[click to view]

[11] History of the Caffaro industry
[click to view]

[12] Lombardy Regional Environmental Protection Agency (ARPA Lombardia)
[click to view]

Ambiente Brescia.it - description of the case and documentation
[click to view]

Minister of Environment website, Reclamation activities
[click to view]

Municipality of Brescia website
[click to view]

Radio onda d'urto website
[click to view]

Media Links

Rai tv documentary
[click to view]

Cittadini Reattive website
[click to view]

Documentaries on the case
[click to view]

Other Documents

Contaminated area Credits: industriaeambiente.it
[click to view]

Historical picture of the industry Credits: industriaeambiente.it
[click to view]

Public sign : danger of contamination credits: radiondadurto.org
[click to view]

Caffaro industry credits: industriaeambiente.it
[click to view]

Protests credits: comune-info.net
[click to view]

Demonstration demanding reclamation Credits: antinocivitabs.org
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorMarino Ruzzenenti (Fondazione Luigi Micheletti, Brescia), Marianna CDCA (cdca.it)
Last update14/10/2014
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