Calcite mining in Nimmalapadu village, AP, India

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">Nimmalapadu in Andhra Pradesh is mostly tribal dominated area and the residents are mainly farmers. They used to cultivate three crops a year by managing the flow of a small stream into the village. Aditya Birla Group's Birla Periclase wanted to mine calcite in the area to produce magnesia at its factory located 110 km away in Visakhapatnam. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> Because of calcite mining in the village, large tribal population would have been displaced. In 1987, the company started to dig in the village land. Government officials also asked the villagers to vacate the land. At that time Government offered very meager compensation (about Rs 5,000 per family). <br/><br/> Determined not to allow mining in their village, the people of Nimmalapadu began a struggle against the government and Birla Periclase. Samata, an NGO based in Hyderabad, helped the villagers in organising the agitation. On the advice of Samata, the villagers filed a case in the High Court, which they lost in 1995 [1]. <br/><br/> But Samata took up the cause and filed a case in the Supreme Court on behalf of the villagers. A 10-year struggle led to a historical judgement in 1997, widely known as the Samata judgement, in which the Court ruled that the state had no right to grant leases in areas governed by the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution. Only cooperative societies jointly run by tribals could mine in such areas. [2, 3]. <br/><br/> Birla Periclase is a subsidiary company of Indian Rayon and Industries; it was given a lease of 120 acres in Nimmalapadu in 1987. The land was given to extract calcite, one of the principal raw materials for the company's Sea Water Magnesia plant near Bheemunipatnam in Vishakhapatnam district. It was not only the lease that raised the alarm among the adivasis, but also the infrastructure facilities provided by the state government to facilitate the mining operations. The state government shared 50% of the cost of constructing roads, acted as a 'facilitator' to acquire land for a 22 km long road, with width varying from 25ft to 90 ft, and promoted construction of road for the actual operation site in the name of ‘public purpose'[4]. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Calcite mining in Nimmalapadu village, AP, India</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/india">India</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Andhra Pradesh</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Nimmalapadu, Chintapalle, Visakhapatnam</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>MEDIUM regional level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Mineral ore exploration</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td>Calcite, Magnesium</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">Birla Periclase, a subsidiary company of Indian Rayon and Industries was given a lease of 120 acres in Nimmalapadu in 1987. The land was given to extract calcite, one of the principal raw materials for the company's Sea Water Magnesia plant near Bheemunipatnam in Vishakhapatnam district. It was not only the lease that raised the alarm among the adivasis, but also the infrastructure facilities provided by the state government to facilitate the mining operations. The state government shared 50% of the cost of constructing roads, acted as a 'facilitator' to acquire land for a 22 km long road, with width varying from 25ft to 90 ft, and promoted construction of road for the actual operation site in the name of ‘public purpose'[4]. <br/><br/></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>48.6</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>1987</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/birla-periclase'>Birla Periclase</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/india'><small>India</small></a> - <small> a subsidiary company of Indian Rayon and Industries (India)</small><br /><a href='/company/indian-rayon-and-industries'>Indian Rayon and Industries</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/india'><small>India</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Government of Andhra Pradesh</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Samata- a Hyderabad-based NGO, http://samataindia.org.in/, https://www.facebook.com/pages/Samata/118445384842399</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> Local ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Development of a network/collective action<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Mine tailing spills</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Stopped</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Court decision (victory for environmental justice)<br /> Project cancelled</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Only cooperative societies run by indigenous local residents should operate in the area.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Yes</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The Court Judgement known as 'Samata judgement' which came after a 10-year struggle. In the judgment known as the Court ruled that the state had no right to grant leases in areas governed by the Fifth Schedule of the Constitution. Only cooperative societies jointly run by tribals could mine in such areas [2]</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Panchayats (Extension to the Scheduled Areas) (PESA) Act<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> A report on Profit Sharing with local communities<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.cseindia.org/userfiles/profit_sharing.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> THE FIFTH SCHEDULE OF THE CONSTITUTION AND THE SAMATHA JUDGEMENT <br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.samataindia.org.in/documents/SAMATA_EDIT1.PDF" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Sharing the Wealth of Minerals<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> [3] Tribal onslaughts<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.downtoearth.org.in/node/28986" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="https://ia600301.us.archive.org/17/items/ThisIsOurHomelandACollectionOfEssaysOnTheBetrayalOfAdivasi/ThisIsOurHomeland.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> vs AP.htm<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://mmpindia.in/samatha" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [1] Mining, people and the environment : The Implications of the EU-India Free Trade Agreement by Chandra Bhushan and Sugandh Juneja<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www2.weed-online.org/uploads/mining_people_and_the_environment_2012.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [2] NIMMALAPADU<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://cseindia.org/mining/1district_andhra.htm" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> CPI(M) launches ‘porata yatra against mining<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.hindu.com/2011/06/18/stories/2011061863370300.htm" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Makireddy: Rallying for adivasi land rights<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://thealternative.in/content-type/voices/rallying-adivasi-land-rights-samata-judgement/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> SAMATA – A PROFILE<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://mmpindia.in/Samataprofile.htm" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Girijans oppose calcite mining<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-andhrapradesh/girijans-oppose-calcite-mining/article1178531.ece" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [4] This is our homeland: a collection of essays on the betrayal of adivasi rights in India<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Samatha Vs State of Andhra Pradesh<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Sohan Prasad Sha & Swapan Kumar Patra</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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