Fracking in California, USA

The four year fight in California by many environmentalist groups asking for a moratorium on fracking, still withough success


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The usage of fracking technique of high-pressure water, chemicals, and sand has been used in California since approximately 2011, primarily in order to drill for oil. The controversial technique has been used in at least 1,900 California oil and gas wells by different “Big Oil” companies operating in the State. Regulators and lawmakers were accused by different environmentalist groups to know only very little about how and where oil companies employ techniques of hydraulic fracturing all over California. Since the dangerous effects of fracking on air, water, wildlife, public health and climate became more and more public, different environmental and other civil society movements have formed to protest against the usage of fracking in California. Environmentalists have sued the federal government in order to prevent oil companies from fracking on public lands in Monterey and Fresno counties. The Governor of California, Jerry Brown, has also been heavily criticized for not restricting oil companies in their fracking activities as much as demanded by civil society. In 2013, fracking regulations were included in Senate Bill 4 in California. In a joint letter to Governor Brown, Environmental Groups responded to the passing of the regulations, saying that the rules included in the bill “do not consider long-term and wide-ranging environmental, public health and economic consequences of fracking in California”.</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">Due to its dry climate, California has repeatedly been suffering droughts and fires. It has been reported that the oil industry in California is wasting 2 million gallons of water every day by extraction techniques such as fracking, acidizing and cyclic steam injection. Different incidents of water pollution as well as more than 100 violations of the disclosure rules for fracking and other dangerous oil production methods required by Senate Bill 4 have been reported by the Center of Biological Diversity in April 2014. Also, there have been cases of fracking on private land reported, where owners were not notified or asked for their consent.<br/><br/>Since Governor Brown has continuously failed to address these violations and allegations of California residents, local social movements and residents are still fighting for a moratorium on fracking in California. By July 2015, the Center for Biological Diversity filed a complaint asking the Sacramento County Superior Court to kill the faulty EIR’s certification and stop the state from handing out well-stimulation permits based on it.<br/><br/>Moreover there were large marches in California in 2015 against fracking and climate change.<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Fracking in California, USA</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/united-states-of-america">United States of America </a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>California</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Monterey, Sacramento, Santa Barbara, Kern, Ventura, Los Angeles County</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>LOW country/state level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Shale gas fracking<br /> Water access rights and entitlements</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/crude-oil'>Crude oil</a><br /><a href='/commodity/natural-gas'>Natural Gas</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">Fracking has been used in at least 1,900 California oil and gas wells by different “Big Oil” companies operating in the State.</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">Energy Information Administration estimated that Monterey would produce 550 million barrels. The campaign in defense of fracking has been led by the Western States Petroleum Asociation, whose companies account for 80% of California's oil and gas production. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>At least 417,230 hectares have been leased for fracking</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>Potential 10 – 14 million people (population of the counties where fracking is taking place)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>01/01/2011</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/western-states-petroleum-asociation'>Western States Petroleum Asociation <small>(WSPA)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>State of California<br/><br/>Governor of California (Jerry Brown)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Environment California: http://www.environmentcalifornia.org/<br/><br/>Clean Water Action, http://www.cleanwateraction.org/fracking-california<br/><br/>Sierra Club, www.sierraclub.org/<br/><br/>California against Fracking: http://californiansagainstfracking.org<br/><br/>Courage Campaign: https://www.couragecampaign.org/<br/><br/>Daily Kos: www.dailykos.com/<br/><br/>350.org: www.350.org<br/><br/>Food and Water Watch: www.foodandwaterwatch.org<br/><br/>Presente: http://www.presente.org<br/><br/>Forecast the Facts: forecastthefacts.org/</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Local scientists/professionals</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Desertification/Drought, Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Planned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Court decision (undecided)<br /> New legislation<br /> New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Moratorium on Fracking</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>In 2013, fracking regulations were included in Senate Bill 4 in California. In a joint letter to Governor Brown, Environmental Groups responded to the passing of the regulations, saying that the rules included in the bill “do not consider long-term and wide-ranging environmental, public health and economic consequences of fracking in California”, including global warming.<br/><br/>Since Governor Brown has continuously failed to address these violations and allegations of California residents, local social movements and residents are still fighting for a moratorium on fracking in California.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Senate Bill No. 4, CHAPTER 313, An act to amend Sections 3213, 3215, 3236.5, and 3401 of, and to add Article 3 (commencing with Section 3150) to Chapter 1 of Division 3 of, the Public Resources Code, and to add Section 10783 to the Water Code, relating to oil and gas.[ Approved by Governor, September 20, 2013. Filed with Secretary of State, September 20, 2013. ]<br/><a class="refanch small" href=" http://leginfo.legislature.ca.gov/faces/billHistoryClient.xhtml" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> RIDLINGTON, Elizabeth; RUMPLER, John (2013), Fracking by the Numbers. Key Impacts of Dirty Drilling at the State and National Level, Environment CALIFORNIA, Research & Policy Center, October 2013,<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://environmentcaliforniacenter.org/sites/environment/files/reports/CA_FrackingNumbers_scrn.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> California and fracking, Center for Media and Democracy, SourceWatch,<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php/California_and_fracking " target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Oil extraction method widely used in California without oversight, by Michal J. Mishak, Los Angeles Times, 14.03.2012,<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://articles.latimes.com/2012/mar/14/local/la-me-oil-fracking-20120315" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> California City Becomes First to Vote to Ban Fracking, The Huffington Post, by Lydia O'Connor, 24.04.2014,<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/04/24/beverly-hills-fracking-ban_n_5208377.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> California Shuts Down Injection of Fracking Waste to Proect Scarce Water, ProPublica, The Huffington Post, by Abrahm Lustgarten, 19.07.2014,<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/07/19/california-fracking-contamination_n_5600512.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Environmental Groups Respond to Gov. Brown's Fracking Regulations, Sacramento, California, 10.10.2014,<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://californiansagainstfracking.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/14-10-10-Response-to-Final-Draft-DOGGR-Regs.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Oil Industry in California Wastes 2 Million Gallons of Water Each Day, by Adam Scow and Hollin Kretzmann, Californians Against Fracking, 13.08.2014,<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://californiansagainstfracking.org/californians-against-fracking-releases-new-data-analysis-oil-industry-in-california-wastes-2-million-gallons-of-water-each-day/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> If Jerry Brown Is So Green, Why Is He Allowing Fracking In California, The Nation, by Mark Hertsgaard, 18.06.2014,<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.thenation.com/article/180303/if-jerry-brown-so-green-why-he-allowing-fracking-california" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Confirmed: California Aquifers Contaminated With Billions of Gallons of Fracking Wastewater, Desmogblog, 07.10.2014,<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.desmogblog.com/2014/10/07/central-california-aquifers-contaminated-billions-gallons-fracking-wastewater" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> NBC, Threat of Lawsuit over California Oil Drilling, Hundreds of wells being fracked in California, NBC Bay Area, The Investigative Unit, 29.08.2012,<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.nbcbayarea.com/investigations/What-the-Frack-Controversial-Drilling-Happening-Here-in-California-140956263.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> March in Oakland against fracking and climate change, February 2015 (video)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://marchforclimateleadership.org/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/California_Fracking.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>31/08/2015</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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