Cassuruba Reserve in Caravelas, Bahia, Brazil

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">Since 2003 environmental and research groups have been warning about the consequences of oil and natural gas exploration on the biodiversity conservation area of the Abrolhos Marine National Park. The SOS Abrolhos Coalition was funded in order to bring together several NGOs, environmental networks, social movements and research groups. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> Since 2004, the Municipal Council of environmental protection of Caravelas (Condema), in the State of Bahia, has been receiving reports of deforestation of mangroves and concerns about possible shrimp breeding in captivity in the region. Some measures have been therefore adopted, such as restricting this activity in natural sanctuaries. <br/><br/> However, non-local workers fishing activities affected local communities, who started mobilizing in Caravelas and Nova Vicosa; they demanded the creation of an Extractivist Reserve (Resex), called Cassurub, which would guarantee them livelihoods, based on shellfish collection and small-scale fishing. Since then, the Condema began to ask the Environmental Resource Center of Bahia (CRA) now Environmental Institute (IMA)-, agency responsible for environmental permitting in the State, information on possible projects for shrimp farming. <br/><br/> In October 2004, Coopex, subsidiary of the Portuguese group Lusomar, associated with 26 Brazilian investors, asked to the Environmental Resource Center of Bahia (CRA - now Environmental Institute IMA) to give license for a shrimp farm in Caravelas of 1500 hectares. The project area, however, was exactely the same of Cassurub extractive reserve. <br/><br/> The conflict intensified in 2005, bringing together communities of fishermen, shellfish and crab pickers, environmental organizations and social movements against the development of shrimp cultivation of Coopex. <br/><br/> As a result of popular pressure, on June 5, 2009, the federal Government published a decree of President Lula creating the Resex Cassurub, in an area of 100 thousand hectares between Caravelas and Nova Vicosa. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Cassuruba Reserve in Caravelas, Bahia, Brazil</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/brazil">Brazil</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Bahia</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Caravelas e Nova Viosa</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biodiversity conservation conflicts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Aquaculture and fisheries<br /> Wetlands and coastal zone management</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/crude-oil'>Crude oil</a><br /><a href='/commodity/shrimps'>Shrimps</a><br /><a href='/commodity/natural-gas'>Natural Gas</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>1500</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2004</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/cooperativa-dos-criadores-de-camaro-do-extremo-sul-da-bahia'>Cooperativa dos Criadores de Camaro do Extremo Sul da Bahia <small>(Coopex)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/brazil'><small>Brazil</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Conselho Municipal de Defesa do Meio Ambiente de Caravelas , Centro de Recursos Ambientais da Bahia , Instituto do Meio Ambiente , Camara Municipal de Caravelas, Prefeitura Municipal de Caravelas, Ministro Publico do Estado da Bahia , Conselho Estadual de Meio Ambiente da Bahia , Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservao da Biodiversidade , Bahia Pesca S/A, Secretaria de Agricultura, Irrigao e Reforma Agraria do Estado da Bahia</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Coalizo SOS Abrolhos, Rede MangueMar</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Fishermen<br /> Local ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Shellfish pickers or collectors</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Development of a network/collective action<br /> Development of alternative proposals<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Public campaigns</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Occupational disease and accidents</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Stopped</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Land demarcation<br /> New legislation<br /> Strengthening of participation<br /> Application of existing regulations<br /> New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study<br /> Project cancelled</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Yes</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The Resex was created and the shrimp farm was cancelled. There was coperation between shellfish collectors and conservationists.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Decreto: Dispe sobre a criao da Reserva Extrativista de Cassurub, nos Municpios de Caravelas, Alcobaa e Nova Viosa, no Estado da Bahia<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Cronologia dos acontecimentos recentes no Complexo dos Abrolhos. <br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> NICOLAU, Omar. Ambientalismo e carcinicultura: disputa de verdades e conflito social no extremo sul da Bahia. <br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Abrolhos ameaado por empreendimento de carcinicultura (27/04/2006). <br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> AMBIENTE BRASIL. Justia federal suspende licenciamento de empreendimento de carcinicultura em Caravelas/BA. Disponvel em: Acesso em: 04 nov. 2008.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Ativistas fazem protesto em defesa de Abrolhos na ANP em Salvador (11/02/2009).<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Diogo Rocha</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>