Castilla Thermal Power Station, Chile

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">The Castilla project was initiated by MPX/E.ON, a joint Brazilian-German venture aiming to construct one of the biggest and most polluting thermal power stations in Latin America. The project also involves the development of an associated port to supply fuel (coal and diesel) for the operation of the thermal power station. Planned for northern Chile, the plant aimed to supply energy mainly to the mining industry. Both projects requested environmental permits separately and several irregularities and pressures from the government in the approval process of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the projects were denounced. Local farmers, fishermen, EJOs and congressmen actively opposed the project because of the negative impacts it would bring for health and the environment. Legal measures were undertaken and the Supreme Court unanimously ruled against the Castilla project, stating the port and the thermal power plant needed to be evaluated together, and reaffirming the constitutional right to live in an environment free of pollution. <br/><br/></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Castilla Thermal Power Station, Chile</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/chile">Chile</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Atacama Región </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Copiapó</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>MEDIUM regional level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Desalination<br /> Coal extraction and processing<br /> Ports and airport projects<br /> Thermal power plants</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/electricity'>Electricity</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The thermal power station would have produced 2354 MW of energy. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> More than 21 million m3 of ash would have accumulated over 20 years. <br/><br/> More than 280,000 m3/h of sea water would have been extracted and a large proportion returned with a temperature 10oC higher. <br/><br/> More than 1,300,000 m3/h of greenhouse gases would have been introduced to the atmosphere. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>730</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>4400000000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>2000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>12/2008</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/brazilian-germany-joint-venture'>Brazilian-germany joint venture</a><br /><a href='/company/chilean-subsidiaries'>Chilean subsidiaries</a><br /><a href='/company/for-the-thermal-power-station-cgx-castilla-generacion-sa'>For the thermal power station - CGX Castilla Generación S.A.</a><br /><a href='/company/for-the-maritime-port-omx-operaciones-maritimas-ltda'>For the maritime port - OMX Operaciones Maritimas Ltda.</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Regional Health Authority of Atacama, Environmental Commission, Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Economy, Intergovernmental Committee for Expediting Investment Projects</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Observatorio Latinoamericano de Conflictos Ambientales (OLCA) www.olca.cl, Junta de Vecinos de Totoral, Mesa Social Contra Termoelectrica Castilla, Comunidad Agrícola Totoral, Confederación Nacional de Pescadores Artesanales (CONAPACH), Asociación Regional de Municipios (ARMA), Unión Vecinal de Copiapó, Movimiento Pro Defensa de las Costas de Atacama, Federación de Estudiantes Universitarios, Oceana</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LATENT (no visible organising at the moment)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Fishermen<br /> Local ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Social movements</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Oil spills, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Other environmental related diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>Health impacts due to air pollution</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Stopped</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Court decision (victory for environmental justice)<br /> Strengthening of participation<br /> Project cancelled</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Yes</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>After several social mobilizations and the use of legal avenues, the project was stopped by the Supreme Court. This case is emblematic for several reasons, as the ruling prioritised the precautionary principle, making a decision before damage could be caused by the industry, and deciding for the first time in favour of the constitutional right to live in an environment free of pollution.<br/><br/></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Constitución Política de la República de Chile<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Ley 19.300 & Ley 20.417 (environmental Law),<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> General Law of Urban Planning and Construction (LGUC), Decree-Law No. 458 of 1975,<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Supreme Decree No. 47 by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development, under the General Ordinance on Urbanism and Construction (OGUC) of 1992,<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Law No. 19.880, which establishes the bases for Administrative Procedures Governing Acts of State Administration Bodies,<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Resolution N ° 254, 2010, COREMA III Region<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> General Controller of the Republic, 2011, Report on the Special Investigation of Regional Ministerial Secretary of Health of Atacama <br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> EIA Castilla maritime port <br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://seia.sea.gob.cl/expediente/expedientesEvaluacion.php?modo=ficha&id_expediente=3911288" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> ía-Castilla.PDF<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.elmostrador.cl/media/2011/09/Informe-Contralor" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Atacama Sin Carbon<br/><a class="refanch small" href="www.olca.cl" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Atacama Sin Carbon<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://noalatermoelectricacastilla.blogspot.com/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> EIA Castilla thermal power station:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://seia.sea.gob.cl/expediente/expedientesEvaluacion.php?modo=ficha&id_expediente=3409601#-1" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> General Comptroller Republic of Chile Report on Castilla:<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://vimeo.com/14609220" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> TVN News:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RsYDjBp5HaI" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.24horas.cl/economia/olca-fallo-de-central-castilla-sentara-un-precedente-a-futuro-286039" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Oceana videos:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://oceana.org/es/sa/expediciones/punta-cachos/videos?vidid=8887" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> La Tercera Media TV:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.laterceratv.cl/index.php?m=video&v=17349" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Video of Totoral Community:<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Barbara Galetti</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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