Chrome-rich Great Dyke Area, Zimbabwe

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">Most of Zimbabwes ferrochrome deposits lie in the Great Dyke, a mountain range that runs the length of the country, rich in ferrochrome, platinum and gold deposits. Zimasco company has mined ferrochrome on the Great Dyke since the early 1900s and has been owned by local businesses, Union Carbide Corp. and Rio Tinto Plc. (RIO) and was acquired by Sinosteel in 2007. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> Zimascos subsidiaries, as well as other mining companies in the area are said to be operating without permits, without environmental impact assessments with the local authorities and the community powerless to enforce or demand compliance of environmental and mining regulations. <br/><br/> They were also said to be violating the country’s Indigenisation and Empowerment Act, with few benefits redistributed to local populations. <br/><br/> Accroding to the Zvishavane Rural District Council chrome mining companies ‘have come and gone in the Mapanzure area of Zvishavane, extracted as much chrome as they wanted and dug dam-size pits, and after looting the area have disappeared leaving it severely defaced posing a danger to humans, livestock and water sources’. The mining companies have ignored the principle of corporate social responsibility, ignored the plight of the community and their employees live in makeshift pole and dagga huts. The RDC alleges that some cattle have fallen into the open pits left behind by the companies. More worryingly is the fact that the pits have become death traps for humans as well. The Chinese companies have left behind piles of gravel on the road which are now virtually impassable. They had claimed that they wanted to resurface the roads with gravel and yet they were simply buying time. The mining area is not fenced as required by the Environmental Management Act. Traditional leaders are allegedly being bribed so that they protect the interests of the mining companies. Water bodies have been destroyed through pollution by the miners and the local flora and fauna are being heavily impacted. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Chrome-rich Great Dyke Area, Zimbabwe</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/zimbabwe">Zimbabwe</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Midlands</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Zvishavane</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Mineral processing<br /> Mineral ore exploration</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td>Chrome, Platinum</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">In 2011 Zimbabwe extracted 1.5 million tonnes of chrome and the volume of producted was estimated to be around 3.5 million tonnes in 2012. <br/><br/></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>12000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>1 000,000 - 1 500,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>1926</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/zimasco'>ZIMASCO</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/zimbabwe'><small>Zimbabwe</small></a> - <small> A big number of small scale chrome miners are involved and its subsidiary companies all over the Great Dyke</small><br /><a href='/company/sun-he-mine'>SUN HE MINE</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/china'><small>China</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Ministry of Mines and Mining Development, Environmental Management Agency, Rural District Councils</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Environment Africa, Zimbabwe Environmental law Association, Center for Natural Resource Governance</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Artisanal miners<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Ethnically/racially discriminated groups</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)<br /> Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Desertification/Drought, Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Mine tailing spills<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Air pollution, Fires, Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Genetic contamination, Global warming, Oil spills</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Occupational disease and accidents, Deaths, Other environmental related diseases<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Infectious diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Militarization and increased police presence</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Corruption<br /> Deaths<br /> Migration/displacement<br /> Under negotiation<br /> --</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Environmental Management Agency must have prosecuting authority and their fines must be enforceable. Money paid as fines must be used for the rehabilitation of the environment. <br/><br/>Government must renegotiate all contracts involving chrome mining. Traditional Leaders must be consulted together with the wider community as individuals tend to be bribed thereby compromising their opinions.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The Environmental Management Agency has been blamed for failing to rein in the polluting companies. Its fines are not enforceable. Police say they are not mandated to enforce EMA fines. Traditional leaders have been co opted. Even those traditional leaders who want to protect their people and environment have become helpless because, according to a local newspaper, most of these mines have entered their areas waving legal documents from big offices in Harare and without consulting chiefs, started digging up the area for chrome</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Environmental Management Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Mines and Minerals Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Minerals Marketing Corporation of Zimbabwe Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> RURAL LAND ACT ACT 20 18<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> RURAL LAND OCCUPIERS ACT 20 26<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> COMMUNAL LAND ACT ACT 20 04<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> CHAMBER OF MINES OF ZIMBABWE INCORPORATION (PRIVATE) ACT ACT 21 02<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> RURAL DISTRICT COUNCILS ACT ACT 29 13<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Thesis <br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://miniurl.com/dh4j" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> CHROME MINING MECHANIZATION VER 2.pdf<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.saimm.co.za/download/saimmbranches/zimbabwe/DYKE" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN CHROME MINING ALONG THE GREAT DYKE: A CASE STUDY OF ZIMASCO OPERATIONS<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Tendai Chakupa<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Dyke Chrome Mining Mechanization: Opportunities and Dilemmas<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.zimasco.co.zw/operations/mining-operations.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.newsday.co.zw/article/2011-11-10-chrome-miners-degrading-environment" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10540303" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> </p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Comments</td><td>It is also alleged that there is such lawlessness in the area to the extent that some small scale miners are exploring on the other peoples private property and when they discover chrome they start mining. This has seen a rise in mining related conflicts and violence.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Farai Maguwu</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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