Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and minority residents in Kenansville North Carolina, USA


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The city of Kennansville and the surrounding Duplin County area is a major hub of hog processing in the form of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations. In 2007 alone the county processed 2,274,524 hogs. CAFO operations are disproportionatly located near low income African American and Hispanic communities. One study found that CAFOs were nine times more likely to be sited in areas with high poverty and a large minority community even controlling for population density. Waste from the CAFOs is stored untreated in large lagoons and then applied to the land. These lagoos of waste contain harmful pathogens, insecticides, antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals as well as nitorgen and phosphorus. The waste leaches into the surrounding ground and over overflows during times of heavy rainfall contaminating local watersheds. Pollution and odor also travel through the air in fine particles that coat outside surfaces. Testing in the area has found high levels of hydrogen sulfide, endotoxin, coarse particulate matter, and semivolatile compounds. Local residents have complained of resperatory problems, irritated skin, and eyes, and nausea. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">In 2007 a moratorium on new hog CAFOs became law. However, regulations on existing hog operations remains weak. After some legislative victories in 2011 the General Assembly passed an act S.L. 2011-118. SB 501 which allows hog farms to update their facilities without updated the safety technology in their waste lagoons. Some have objected that this counters previous agreements to implement the best environmental technology. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations and minority residents in Kenansville North Carolina, USA</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/united-states-of-america">United States of America </a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>North Carolina</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Kenansville</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Intensive food production (monoculture and livestock)<br /> Agro-toxics</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/meat'>Meat</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">There are more than forty permited swine feeding operation facilities in Kenansville with capacity for more than 19,000,000 animals and 771 waste lagoons. In the entire county of Dupline permits have been issued for more than 15 million swine and 36967 waste lagoons (http://portal.ncdenr.org/web/wq/aps/afo/perm) Duplin county population was 60033 in 2012. Of that 26% were African American, 21.2% Latino or Hispanic and 22.7% lived below the poverty line making them statistically more vulnerable to pollution hazards. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>492,210,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>1980</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>One major problem is that the Department of Health does not have the authority to regulate CAFOs in North Carolina.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Clean Water for North Carolina, Organic Consumers Association, Rural Empowerment Association for Community Help, North Carolina Environmental Justice Network</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>UNKNOWN</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>UNKNOWN</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Local ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Ethnically/racially discriminated groups<br /> Low inome, rural, African American, Immigrant</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Media based activism/alternative media</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Other environmental related diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Loss of livelihood, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Unknown</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>New legislation<br /> improved technology</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Some legislative improvements have been made but in general the existing CAFOs remain under-regulated. Increasing public attention being drawn to labor and environmental issues connected to CAFOs, legislative campaign, public awareness efforts continue.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Swine Farm Environmental Performance Standards Act<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Intensive livestock operations, health, and quality of life among eastern North Carolina residents. S Wing and S Wolf<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1637983/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Examination of atmospheric ammonia levels near hog CAFOs, homes, and schools in Eastern North Carolina. Sacoby M. Wilsona, Marc L. Serreb<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1352231007000453" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> CAFOs and Environmental Justice The Case of North Carolina.' Environmental Health Perspectives 121, no. 6 (2013): A182-A189<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/121/6/ehp.121-a182.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Factory Farm Map.' Food and Water Watch. (accessed February 10, 2014)<br/><a class="refanch small" href=" http://www.factoryfarmmap.org/#animal:hogs;location:US;year:2002" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Comments</td><td>This is one of the top 40 influential environmental justice cases in the United States identified from a national survey of environmental activists, scholars and other leaders by graduate students at the University of Michigan. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Katy Hintzen, [email protected], University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>07/05/2015</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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