Coltan in the Kivu Region, DR of Congo

Persistent illegal Coltan mining in DR of Congo, using child labour and increasing biodiversity loss and environmental risks. On March 20th 2016, the priest Vincent Machozi was shot dead for denouncing the mass killing of the Nande community


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">The Congo is a land at the centre of numerous conflicts generated by the competition to exploit its rich forest and mineral resources. The mining of Coltan, an essential mineral for the hi-tech industry used in mobile phones and electronics, has not benefited local communities - on the contrary, their lands have been seized, Coltan smuggling likely provides income for the military occupation of Congo and the proceeds of mining have financed civil war, the environmental impacts are negative and citizens’ rights are seriously at risk, not to forget children’s labor is largely common. Eastern Mountain Gorilla populations are also now endangered as miners kill the gorillas for bushmeat. The Initiative by 2004 by RAID and Friends of the Earth US to render chemical North-American multinationals accountable didn’t succeed. The priest<a> </a><a>Vincent Machozi was shot dead</a> on March 20th 2016. He was denouncing the mass killing of the Nande community, the main ethnic group in Beni-Lubero territory. This community continues decrying the <a>o</a><a>n-going arbitrary killings and land dispossessions</a> they endure. However, the multiple issues around the Coltan mining in the DR of Congo remain hard to challenge due to the political very precarious situation of the country and the persistent denial by the international community to face the problem.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Coltan in the Kivu Region, DR of Congo</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/congo-dem-rep">Congo, Dem. Rep.</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Kivu region</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Kalonge</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>MEDIUM regional level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Mineral processing<br /> Mineral ore exploration</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/rare-metals'>Rare metals</a><br /><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br />Coltan</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">From 64 to 80 percent of the worlds coltan is found in the Congo. Around 1,500 tons of the precious material were illegally exported from Africa in late 1998 until the Summer of 1999. People in the Congo were still dying at a rate of an estimated 45,000 per month in 2009. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>80 percent of total population.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>1995</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/ericsson'>Ericsson</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/sweden'><small>Sweden</small></a><br /><a href='/company/sony'>Sony</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/japan'><small>Japan</small></a><br /><a href='/company/swissair'>Swissair</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/switzerland'><small>Switzerland</small></a><br /><a href='/company/aei'>Ashmore International Energy <small>(AEI)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a><br /><a href='/company/nokia'>NOKIA</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/finland'><small>Finland</small></a><br /><a href='/company/sabena'>Sabena</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/belgium'><small>Belgium</small></a><br /><a href='/company/cabot-corporation'>Cabot Corporation</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a><br /><a href='/company/avx'>AVX</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a><br /><a href='/company/om-group'>OM Group</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a><br /><a href='/company/eagle-wings-resources-international'>Eagle Wings Resources International</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a><br /><a href='/company/trinitech-international'>Trinitech International</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a><br /><a href='/company/vishay-sprague'>Vishay Sprague</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>IUCN - Switzerland, OECD Watch, Friends of the Earth US, Right and Accountability in Development (RAID)</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> International ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Social movements<br /> Ethnically/racially discriminated groups</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Genetic contamination, Global warming, Noise pollution, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Malnutrition, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Occupational disease and accidents, Deaths<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Corruption<br /> Deaths<br /> Migration/displacement<br /> Repression</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>The end of the civil war and the retrieve of the lands to they initial owners, the development of the mine activity in good work conditions.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The extraction of Coltan continues financing civil wars and the repression of the native population.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Research and Information visit to the Republic of Congo. IWGIA. Ed. IWGIA. 2005.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Curse Of Gold: The DemocraticRepublic of Congo. Human Rights Watch. Ed. Human Rights Watch. 2005.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Erasing The Board: Report ofthe International ResearchMission into Crimes UnderInternational Law CommittedAgainst the Bambuti Pygmiesin the Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Minority Rights Group International. Ed. Minority Rights Group International. 2004.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Rush and Ruin. The Devastating Mineral Trade in Southern Katanga, DRC. Global Witness. Ed. Global Witness. 2004.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Elikia. Storie dal Congo. Frazzetta, Andrea; Massarenti, Joshua. Ed. Terre Di Mezzo. 2007.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Lalba della Democrazia Viaggio nel Congo che cambia. Meandri, Eugenio. Ed. EMI. 2007.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Political Economy of the Great Lakes Region of Africa:The Pitfalls of EnforcedDemocracy and Globalization. Marysse, Stefaan; Reyntjens, Filip. Ed. Palgrave Macmillan. 2005.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Congo-Ruanda Burundi-Le parole per conoscere.Touadi, Jean-Lonard. Ed. Editori Riuniti. 2004.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Stolen Goods: Coltan and Conflict in the DR of Congo, Dana Montague (PDF)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.congoweek.org/images/pdf/dana_montague.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> UN Report on the Illegal exploitation of natural ressources in DR of Congo<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.securitycouncilreport.org/atf/cf/%7B65BFCF9B-6D27-4E9C-8CD3-CF6E4FF96FF9%7D/DRC%20S%202001%20357.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> FoE US & RAID vs. Trinitech - Case overview, OECD Watch, August 2004<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.oecdwatch.org/cases/Case_46" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Photo Report at Luwow mine, Dailymail<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3280872/iPhone-mineral-miners-Africa-use-bare-hands-coltan.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Issue: US companies & illegal resource exploitation in DRC, OECD Watch<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.oecdwatch.org/cases/Case_46/@@casesearchview?type=Issue&search=en_US%20companies%20%26%20illegal%20resource%20exploitation%20in%20DRC" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Coltan, Gorillas and cellphones<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.cellular-news.com/coltan/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Congo's coltan rush, BBC News, 01/08/2001<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1468772.stm" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Massacres of Beni: The Yira community (Nande) proves to the UN Security Council that Kinshasa is an accomplice and the Monusco incapable … We need an international investigation and a special tribunal!, BLO, 27/11/2016<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://benilubero.com/massacres-of-beni-the-yira-community-nande-proves-to-the-un-security-council-that-kinshasa-is-an-accomplice-and-the-monusco-incapable-we-need-an-international-investigation-and-a-special-tribun/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> STH Alum Gunned Down in Congo, Government soldiers reportedly responsible for killing, BU Today, 23/03/2016<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.bu.edu/today/2016/vincent-machozi/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Congo, le miniere di coltan (images only)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KMcFyfyR3Qk" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> In Focus: Congo's Bloody Coltan (movie in English)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3OWj1ZGn4uMandfeature=related" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Mugisha, a 12 year old working in a coltan mine, Numbi, DR Congo</strong> Copy rights: Carlos Villalon / villalonsantamaria.com<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/coltan_congo_boy_in_the_mine.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Artisanal young miner searches for coltan, in the Masisi territory of the DR of Congo</strong> Copyrights: Lucas Oleniuk, The Toronto Star<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/coltan_congo.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Lucie Greyl</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>31/01/2017</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
Comments