Cross-border air pollution in Slavonski Brod, Croatia

Citizens of Slavonski Brod-Croatia refuse to breathe the most polluted air in Europe contaminated by the oil refinery in Bosanski Brod- Republic of Srpska, B&H.


Description

In 2007, the old oil refinery in the Bosnian city Bosanski Brod (the Republic of Srpska) has been sold to the Russian company Zarubezhneft. The new owner put into operation the old processing line of crude oil with the capacity of 1.2 million tonnes per year. Hundreds of citizens of Bosanski brod have been employed by the company.

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Basic Data
NameCross-border air pollution in Slavonski Brod, Croatia
CountryCroatia
ProvinceBrod-Posavina County
SiteSlavonski Brod, Bosanski Brod
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Oil and gas refining
Specific CommoditiesCrude oil
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe refinery processing line has a capacity of 1.2 million tonnes per year.

The refinery produces motor fuels, diesel fuels, bitumen, liquid oil gas, heating oil and sulfur.

JANAF has signed contract with the refinery in Bosanski Brod on supply of 1.000.000 tons of oil in 2016.
Level of Investment (in USD)930,000,000
Type of PopulationUrban
Potential Affected Population60,000
Start Date2008
Company Names or State Enterprises“Oil Refinery” j.s.c. Brod from Bosnia and Herzegovina - The polluter
Zarubezhneft from Russian Federation - The majority owner of the oil refinery in Bosanski Brod
JANAF -Jadranski Naftovod (JANAF) from Croatia - Supplies oil to the refinery in Bosanski Brod
Relevant government actorsThe Government of the Republic of Croatia; The Ministry of Environmental and Nature Protection; The Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Croatia; The City of Slavonski Brod; The Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mines of the Republic of Srpska; The Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersCitizens initiative ’’Kad ako ne sad. Brođani, ne dajte da nas truju’’ https://www.facebook.com/groups/547634395250618/; GRAĐANSKA INICIJATIVA ZA ČISTI ZRAK Slavonski Brod https://www.facebook.com/GRA%C4%90ANSKA-INICIJATIVA-ZA-%C4%8CISTI-ZRAK-Slavonski-Brod-120625028021963/; Ecological associations "Eko Integral"; International association "Bikers of Europe"; Association of cyclists from Slavonski Brod; Music band "Brkovi"
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups MobilizingLocal ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Recreational users
Local scientists/professionals
International bikers organisation, local musicians
Forms of MobilizationArtistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Air pollution, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation
Potential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Soil contamination, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
OtherThe air pollution from the refinery includes high concentration of hydrogen sulfide 42 µg/m3 (limit value 7 µg/m3), sulphur dioxide 500 µg/m3 (350 µg/m3), benzene 16,2 µg/m3 (5 µg/m3), and PM 2.5 93,1 µg/m3 (25 µg/m3).
Health ImpactsVisible: Other Health impacts
Potential: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases, Deaths, Other environmental related diseases
Other

Respiratory diseases; particular impact on the health of children and elderly.

There is no reference on particular diseases provoked by the refinery pollution
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseUnder negotiation
Application of existing regulations
Development of AlternativesThe Croatian government and the citizens of Slavonski Brod demanded modernization of the refinery and installing of the air filters. As this did not happen the Croatian authorities decided to inform the European Commission on the case. As Bosnia and Herzegovina is not obliged to comply with EU regulations, the Croatian government might apply the economic measures such as preventing the refinery access to the Croatian market and infrastructure, which would further aggravate its difficult financial situation.
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.The modernization of the refinery occurs at slow pace and the alarmingly high pollution continues.
Sources and Materials
Links

Unatoč kiši, nastavila se borba za čišći zrak
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Desetak sati Brođani bili izloženi visokim koncentracijama štetnih plinova
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Osnovano Povjerenstvo za praćenje poboljšanja kvalitete zraka
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Hrvatska tuži RS i rafineriju nafte u Brodu zbog ekocida
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Bosnia Urged To Cut Pollution From Refinery
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PROTEST OF SLAVONSKI BROD CITIZENS AGAINST AIR POLLUTION
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U Slavonskom Brodu opet prosvjed zbog onečišćenja
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Uzbuna u Slavonskom Brodu: Truju nas. Gušimo se. Spasite nam živote!
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Brođani prosvjedovali protiv sporog rješavanja zagađenja
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Problem zraka u Slavonskom Brodu stigao do Europske komisije
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Rješenje za problem zagađenosti tek kad BiH ratificira Sporazum o pristupanju
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Onečišćenje zraka u Slavonskom Brodu i dalje ključan problem
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Dug rafinerije u Brodu duplo veći od kapitala
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Dug Rafinerije pet puta veći od kapitala
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S mislima na Hrvatsku, Rusi ulažu 760 milijuna eura u Republiku Srpsku
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U Slavonskom Brodu najzagađeniji zrak u EU
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Rafinerija Brod glavni krivac za zagađenje Slavonskog Broda?
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Optima: Rafinerija u remontu ne moze da zagadjuje Slavonski Brod
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Brođani udišu zrak opasan po zdravlje
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GOLIĆ: Rafinerija Brod je u remontu i ne zagađuje okolinu
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Dobrović: Problem zagađenja zraka u Slavonskom Brodu je složeno pitanje
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Brođani zaustavili promet prosvjedujući protiv zagađenja
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BROĐANI IMAJU PRAVO NA ČIST ZRAK
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Brkovi s maskama za čist zrak u Slavonskom Brodu
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Sporazum BiH i Hrvatske o zaštiti okoliša
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Hrvatski građani žele zatvaranje rafinerije u Bosanskom Brodu
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Europski bajkeri u maskama za čistiji zrak u Slavonskom Brodu
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U nedjelju 17. travnja tiha šetnja za čist zrak u Slavonskom Brodu
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Janaf sklopio ugovore vrijedne 500 milijuna kuna
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Ministar Šprlje zaprijetio zatvaranjem dotoka nafte Rafineriji Brod
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Slavonski Brod residents protest against air pollution caused by Bosnian oil refinery
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Slavonski Brod Fights for Better Air Quality
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Biciklijadu posvetili borbi za čist zrak
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Media Links

Protest Brođana zbog zagađenja iz rafinerije
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Rafinerija u Bosanskom Brodu stvara međudržavni problem
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Slavonski Brod: Koga tužiti za to što udišu najzagađeniji zrak u Europi?
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Preliminarni rezultati studije DHMZ-a: Rafinerija u Bosanskom zagađuje Slavonski Brod
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SBTV - DNEVNIK - Novo zagađenje zraka - 19.08.2015.
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Other Documents

Citizens of the Croatian town Slavonski Brod in protest The sign reads: “Let us breathe”
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Oil Refinery in Bosanski Brod Everyday scene of air pollution from the refinery
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Meta Information
ContributorJovanka Spiric, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, vankajo(at)gmail.com
Last update17/05/2016
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