Cross-border air pollution in Slavonski Brod, Croatia

Citizens of Slavonski Brod-Croatia refuse to breathe the most polluted air in Europe contaminated by the oil refinery in Bosanski Brod- Republic of Srpska, B&H.


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">In 2007, the old oil refinery in the Bosnian city Bosanski Brod (the Republic of Srpska) has been sold to the Russian company Zarubezhneft. The new owner put into operation the old processing line of crude oil with the capacity of 1.2 million tonnes per year. Hundreds of citizens of Bosanski brod have been employed by the company. Since 2010 constant exceeding levels of air pollutant emissions have been measured in Slavonski Brod, a Croatian city located on the other side of the river Sava. The air pollution includes high concentration of sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ozone and particulate matter (PM 2.5). Slavonski Brod was ranked by the Environmental Protection Agency as the city with the worst air quality in Croatia in 2013. The frequent occurrence of high air pollution provoked strong reaction of citizens of Slavonski Brod as well as the local and national authorities, which organised several protests in their city and in Zagreb - the capital. In April 2013, the Republic of Srpska authorities denied the accusations claiming that the refinery counts with all environmental permits. The citizen of Bosanski Brod keep quite on the issue as the refinery is one of the main employers in the area. In September 2013, the Croatia’s Minister of Environment and deputy CEO of Zarubezhneft held a meeting in Zagreb to discuss possible solution to the cross boarder air pollution, when the Croatian authorities proposed modernization of the refinery. However, by the second half of 2014 the air quality in the city has not been improved, bursting in further citizens protests. In September 2014, the Croatian Ministry of Environment formed the specialized body for monitoring of air quality improvement in Slavonski Brod and keep citizens regularly informed on the authorities activities related to this problem. The government of Croatia plan to file a lawsuit for cross border pollution to the European Commission against Bosnia and Herzegovina and Zarubezneft. In 2015 and 2016 the pollution has continued at the alarming level, while the citizens did not stop protesting. In April 2016, the governments of Croatia and B&amp;H signed an agreement on cooperation in the field of environmental protection and sustainable development. The results of this cooperation are still to be seen. However, most likely the pollution problem will be solved only once Bosnia and Herzegovina ratified the EU Treaty of Accession, as currently it is not obliged to comply with the EU regulations. At present, the economic measures could be applied, such as preventing the refinery access to Croatian market and infrastructure. Namely, Croatian oil company JANAF is a main supplier of the refinery.  </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Cross-border air pollution in Slavonski Brod, Croatia </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/croatia">Croatia</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Brod-Posavina County</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Slavonski Brod, Bosanski Brod</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Oil and gas refining</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/crude-oil'>Crude oil</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The refinery processing line has a capacity of 1.2 million tonnes per year.</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">The refinery produces motor fuels, diesel fuels, bitumen, liquid oil gas, heating oil and sulfur.<br/><br/>JANAF has signed contract with the refinery in Bosanski Brod on supply of 1.000.000 tons of oil in 2016.<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>930,000,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>60,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2008</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/oil-refinery-jsc-brod'>“Oil Refinery” j.s.c. Brod</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/bosnia-and-herzegovina'><small>Bosnia and Herzegovina</small></a> - <small>The polluter</small><br /><a href='/company/zarubezhneft'>Zarubezhneft</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/russia'><small>Russian Federation</small></a> - <small>The majority owner of the oil refinery in Bosanski Brod</small><br /><a href='/company/janaf-jadranski-naftovod'>JANAF -Jadranski Naftovod <small>(JANAF)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/croatia'><small>Croatia</small></a> - <small>Supplies oil to the refinery in Bosanski Brod</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>The Government of the Republic of Croatia; The Ministry of Environmental and Nature Protection; The Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Croatia; The City of Slavonski Brod; The Ministry of Industry, Energy and Mines of the Republic of Srpska; The Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Relations of Bosnia and Herzegovina</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Citizens initiative ’’Kad ako ne sad. Brođani, ne dajte da nas truju’’ https://www.facebook.com/groups/547634395250618/; GRAĐANSKA INICIJATIVA ZA ČISTI ZRAK Slavonski Brod https://www.facebook.com/GRA%C4%90ANSKA-INICIJATIVA-ZA-%C4%8CISTI-ZRAK-Slavonski-Brod-120625028021963/; Ecological associations "Eko Integral"; International association "Bikers of Europe"; Association of cyclists from Slavonski Brod; Music band "Brkovi"</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>Mobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Recreational users<br /> Local scientists/professionals<br /> International bikers organisation, local musicians</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Artistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)<br /> Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Air pollution, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Soil contamination, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>The air pollution from the refinery includes high concentration of hydrogen sulfide 42 µg/m3 (limit value 7 µg/m3), sulphur dioxide 500 µg/m3 (350 µg/m3), benzene 16,2 µg/m3 (5 µg/m3), and PM 2.5 93,1 µg/m3 (25 µg/m3). </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Other Health impacts<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases, Deaths, Other environmental related diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td><br/><br/>Respiratory diseases; particular impact on the health of children and elderly.<br/><br/>There is no reference on particular diseases provoked by the refinery pollution</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Loss of landscape/sense of place<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Under negotiation<br /> Application of existing regulations</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>The Croatian government and the citizens of Slavonski Brod demanded modernization of the refinery and installing of the air filters. As this did not happen the Croatian authorities decided to inform the European Commission on the case. As Bosnia and Herzegovina is not obliged to comply with EU regulations, the Croatian government might apply the economic measures such as preventing the refinery access to the Croatian market and infrastructure, which would further aggravate its difficult financial situation.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The modernization of the refinery occurs at slow pace and the alarmingly high pollution continues. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Unatoč kiši, nastavila se borba za čišći zrak<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.brodportal.hr/clanak/unatoc-kisi-nastavila-se-borba-za-cisci-zrak-3736" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Desetak sati Brođani bili izloženi visokim koncentracijama štetnih plinova<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.brodportal.hr/clanak/desetak-sati-brodani-bili-izlozeni-visokim-koncentracijama-stetnih-plinova-3903" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Osnovano Povjerenstvo za praćenje poboljšanja kvalitete zraka<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.brodportal.hr/clanak/osnovano-povjerenstvo-za-pracenje-poboljsanja-kvalitete-zraka-6912" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Hrvatska tuži RS i rafineriju nafte u Brodu zbog ekocida<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.brodportal.hr/clanak/hrvatska-tuzi-rs-i-rafineriju-nafte-u-brodu-zbog-ekocida-3757" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Bosnia Urged To Cut Pollution From Refinery<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/bosnia-urged-to-cut-pollution-from-oil-refinery" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> PROTEST OF SLAVONSKI BROD CITIZENS AGAINST AIR POLLUTION<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://tatijanablogerrcom.blogspot.com/2012/11/protest-of-slavonski-brod-citizens.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> U Slavonskom Brodu opet prosvjed zbog onečišćenja<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://vijesti.hrt.hr/u-slavonskom-brodu-opet-prosvjed-zbog-oneciscenja" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Uzbuna u Slavonskom Brodu: Truju nas. Gušimo se. Spasite nam živote!<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.jutarnji.hr/uzbuna-u-slavonskom-brodu--truju-nas--gusimo-se--spasite-nam-zivote-/736706/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Brođani prosvjedovali protiv sporog rješavanja zagađenja<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://republika.eu/novost/19304/brodani-prosvjedovali-protiv-sporog-rjesavanja-zagadenja-" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Problem zraka u Slavonskom Brodu stigao do Europske komisije<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.brodportal.hr/clanak/problem-zraka-u-slavonskom-brodu-stigao-do-europske-komisije-4084" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Rješenje za problem zagađenosti tek kad BiH ratificira Sporazum o pristupanju<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.brodportal.hr/clanak/rjesenje-za-problem-zagadenosti-tek-kad-bih-ratificira-sporazum-o-pristupanju-5547" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Onečišćenje zraka u Slavonskom Brodu i dalje ključan problem<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.brodportal.hr/clanak/oneciscenje-zraka-u-slavonskom-brodu-i-dalje-kljucan-problem-7176" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Dug rafinerije u Brodu duplo veći od kapitala<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://balkans.aljazeera.net/vijesti/dug-rafinerije-u-brodu-duplo-veci-od-kapitala" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Dug Rafinerije pet puta veći od kapitala<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://balkans.aljazeera.net/vijesti/dug-rafinerije-pet-puta-veci-od-kapitala" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> S mislima na Hrvatsku, Rusi ulažu 760 milijuna eura u Republiku Srpsku<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tportal.hr/biznis/gospodarstvo/202684/S-mislima-na-Hrvatsku-Rusi-ulazu-760-milijuna-eura-u-Republiku-Srpsku.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> U Slavonskom Brodu najzagađeniji zrak u EU<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.glas-slavonije.hr/290269/1/U-Slavonskom-Brodu-najzagadjeniji-zrak-u-EU" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Rafinerija Brod glavni krivac za zagađenje Slavonskog Broda?<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://ba.n1info.com/a77559/Vijesti/Vijesti/Rafinerija-Brod-krivac-za-veliko-zagadjenje.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Optima: Rafinerija u remontu ne moze da zagadjuje Slavonski Brod<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://rs.seebiz.eu/optima-rafinerija-u-remontu-ne-moze-da-zagaduje-slavonski-brod/ar-128120/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Brođani udišu zrak opasan po zdravlje<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.dw.com/hr/bro%C4%91ani-udi%C5%A1u-zrak-opasan-po-zdravlje/a-19096204" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> GOLIĆ: Rafinerija Brod je u remontu i ne zagađuje okolinu<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.avaz.ba/clanak/215308/golic-rafinerija-brod-je-u-remontu-i-ne-zagaduje-okolinu?url=clanak/215308/golic-rafinerija-brod-je-u-remontu-i-ne-zagaduje-okolinu" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Dobrović: Problem zagađenja zraka u Slavonskom Brodu je složeno pitanje<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tportal.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/414971/Dobrovic-Problem-zagadenja-zraka-u-Slavonskom-Brodu-je-slozeno-pitanje.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Brođani zaustavili promet prosvjedujući protiv zagađenja<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.vecernji.hr/hrvatska/brodani-zaustavili-promet-prosvjedujuci-protiv-zagadenja-1080690" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> BROĐANI IMAJU PRAVO NA ČIST ZRAK<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.petir.eu/brodani-imaju-pravo-na-cist-zrak/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Brkovi s maskama za čist zrak u Slavonskom Brodu<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.brodportal.hr/clanak/brkovi-s-maskama-za-cist-zrak-u-slavonskom-brodu-12454" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Sporazum BiH i Hrvatske o zaštiti okoliša<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://balkans.aljazeera.net/vijesti/sporazum-bih-i-hrvatske-o-zastiti-okolisa" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Hrvatski građani žele zatvaranje rafinerije u Bosanskom Brodu<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.direktno.ba/hrvatski-gradani-zele-zatvaranje-rafinerije-u-bosanskom-brodu/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Europski bajkeri u maskama za čistiji zrak u Slavonskom Brodu<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.monitor.hr/clanci/europski-bajkeri-u-maskama-za-cistiji-zrak-u-slavonskom-brodu/165239/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> U nedjelju 17. travnja tiha šetnja za čist zrak u Slavonskom Brodu<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://radiong.hr/v2/nedjelju-17-travnja-tiha-setnja-cist-zrak-slavonskom-brodu/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Janaf sklopio ugovore vrijedne 500 milijuna kuna<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.hrt.hr/316351/vijesti/janaf-sklopio-ugovore-vrijedne-500-milijuna-kuna" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Ministar Šprlje zaprijetio zatvaranjem dotoka nafte Rafineriji Brod<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.vecernji.hr/hrvatska/ministar-sprlje-zaprijetio-zatvaranjem-dotoka-nafte-rafineriji-brod-1059754" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Slavonski Brod residents protest against air pollution caused by Bosnian oil refinery<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://about.hr/news/croatia/slavonski-brod-residents-protest-against-air-pollution-caused-bosnian-oil-refinery-18091" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Slavonski Brod Fights for Better Air Quality<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.total-croatia-news.com/lifestyle/2276-slavonski-brod-fights-for-better-air-quality" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Biciklijadu posvetili borbi za čist zrak<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://20minuta.hr/hrvatska/biciklijadu-posvetili-borbi-za-cist-zrak/95624/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Protest Brođana zbog zagađenja iz rafinerije<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://balkans.aljazeera.net/video/protest-brodana-zbog-zagadenja-iz-rafinerije" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Rafinerija u Bosanskom Brodu stvara međudržavni problem<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://balkans.aljazeera.net/video/rafinerija-u-bosanskom-brodu-stvara-medudrzavni-problem" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Slavonski Brod: Koga tužiti za to što udišu najzagađeniji zrak u Europi?<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://dnevnik.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/slavonski-brod-alarmantno-zagadjenje-zraka---426359.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Preliminarni rezultati studije DHMZ-a: Rafinerija u Bosanskom zagađuje Slavonski Brod<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://vijesti.hrt.hr/331933/preliminarni-rezultati-studije-dhmz-a-rafinerija-u-bosanskom-zagauje-slavonski-brod" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> SBTV - DNEVNIK - Novo zagađenje zraka - 19.08.2015.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D1Ml56DxzPg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Citizens of the Croatian town Slavonski Brod in protest</strong> The sign reads: “Let us breathe”<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/1._citizens_protest.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Oil Refinery in Bosanski Brod</strong> Everyday scene of air pollution from the refinery<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/2._Oil_rafinery_in_Bosasni_Brod.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Jovanka Spiric, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, vankajo(at)gmail.com</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>17/05/2016</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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