Daewoo Maize and Biofuel Project, Madagascar

Description
South Korean company Daewoo Logistics signed a 99-year lease in Madagascar for about 1.3 million hectares, or about half of the island's arable land. It is the largest lease of this type in history and would have supplied half of South Korea's grain imports. The organization Collectif pour la Défense des Terres Malgaches, TANY was established in reaction to the lease (in which monetary compensation for the land was not included) and petitioned the government to first consult with stakeholders before agreeing to foreign land deals. The petition was ignored. The Major of Antananarivo (the largest city in Madagascar), Andry Rajoelina, criticized the president, Marc Ravalomanana, for supporting the deal. Rajoelina's administration rose in popularity because of his opposition to to Daewoo. In December of 2009 the mayor organized a series of rallies against the president and the Daewoo deal which escalated into an 'attempted coup d'etat'. Some of the rallies turned violent, stores were burned and looted, and over 100 people died. After three months of unrest President Ravalomanana fled to South Africa and on the 21st of March, 2009, Andry Rajoelina was sworn in as president of Madagascar. Three weeks later he rescinded upon the deal with Daewoo. While this deal is now dead, many smaller land acquisition deals that deny people rights are now being signed and put into operation.

Basic Data
NameDaewoo Maize and Biofuel Project, Madagascar
CountryMadagascar
ProvinceBrickaville, Toamasina II, Vatomandry, Maintirano, and Sava
SiteAntananarivo and Brickaville, Toamasina II, Vatomandry, Maintirano, and Sava regions
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Intensive food production (monoculture and livestock)
Agro-fuels and biomass energy plants
Specific CommoditiesPalm oil
Corn/Maize
Project Details and Actors
Project Detailsmillion hectares of farmland, infrastructure projects, and an estimated 45,000 – 70,000 jobs (mostly filled by skilled south African workers) with a plan to produce 5 million metric tones of corn annually.

Project Area (in hectares)1,300,000
Level of Investment (in USD)6,000,000,000
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population20 million - total population of Madagascar
Start Date29/12/2008
Company Names or State EnterprisesDaewoo Logistics Corporation
Madagascar Future Business Group from Madagascar
Relevant government actorsPresident Marc Ravalomanana, ousted by coup., Andry Rajoelina, new president, previous major of Antananarivo.
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersCollectif pour la Défense des Terres Malgaches, TANY, Chair: Mamy Rakotondrainibe, http://terresmalgaches.info/, Link to petition to the government: http://mada.forumactif.com/t1687-petition-du-collectif-pour-la-defense-des-terres-malgaches
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Local ejos
Landless peasants
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Groups created specifically against Daewoo deal.
Forms of MobilizationBoycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Property damage/arson
Strikes
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Genetic contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil erosion, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Health ImpactsVisible: Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Deaths
Potential: Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights
Potential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Specific impacts on women, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Outcome
Project StatusStopped
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCriminalization of activists
Deaths
Institutional changes
Project cancelled
Development of AlternativesConsult stakeholders and people, conduct environmental assessments, and hold public meetings before agreeing to such long-term and potentially harmful deals.
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.Officially cancelled but is being replaced by smaller deals, and Daewoo continues to hold land in Madagascar. The new president continues to invite foreign investment of this type.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

The constitution is cited to forbid land acquisition by foreign bodies, but this is vague.

References

Barry Ness et. Al., 2009, 'The African land-grab: Creating equitable governance strategies through codes-of-conduct and certification schemes'
[click to view]

Links

'Madagascar leader axes land deal' BBC
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Daewoo logistics
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'South Korean company takes over part of Madagascar to grow biofuels. The Daily Telegraph
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'Madagascar's new leader says Daewoo land deal off' Reuters
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Collectif pour la Defense des Terres Malgaches 'Appel a signature petition'
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorAliza Tuttle
Last update08/04/2014
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