Dai Ninh Hydropower Project, Dong Nai River, Vietnam

In spite of serious concerns regarding resettlement issues, the Dai Ninh Hydropower Project moved forward. While the produced electricity benefits Vietnamese growing urban areas, social and environmental costs are largely carried by ethnic minorities.

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">In order to serve the country’s growing demand for electricity, the government has planned and established a series of hydroelectric projects along Vietnam’s rivers. Among these projects is the 300MW Dai Ninh Hydro Plant, located on the Dong Nai River, a main tributary of the Saigon River. In spite of serious concerns regarding the dam’s impact on people and the environment, the project moved forward and was commissioned in 2008 [1;2].</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">In 1995, the World Bank funded a feasibility study on the dam [3], which was completed in 1997 [2]. In parallel, also the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) funded a feasibility study in 1996, which however was kept secret for a long time. In spite of official requests for public release, such as through Probe International, the study was not made available to the public. Concerns on the project’s impacts on people, environment and biodiversity increased and were voiced by national actors, such as the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD), as well as international institutions, such as the World Conservation Union (IUCN). Citing serious concerns regarding forced evictions and lack of adequate resettlement plans, the World Bank decided to decline to provide project funding [1;2]. <br/><br/>However, Vietnam found other donors: on March 30, 2001, an agreement with Japan's Official Development Assistance (ODA) was signed and it was reported that the Japan’s Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) provided loans covering 85% of the estimated 440 million project [1;2]. Construction started in 2001/2002 [2] and the dam was commissioned in March 2008 [1].<br/><br/>Following years of experiences with large dams, impacts are expected to be devastating. Environmental impacts generally include a drastic modification of riparian and aquatic ecosystems, blocking of fish migration routes, deforestation, and decreasing water quality, leading to a loss of habitat and species, among others. Socio-economic impacts include dispossession and loss of locals’ livelihood, as well as loss of cultural places and spiritual sites of ethnic groups. For the construction of the Dai Ninh dam, it was reported that up to 14,000 people were forcefully resettled to make place for the 1,900ha reservoir [1;2]. Many of the displaced people have been ethnic minorities, i.e., K'ho, Churu; Chil; Cham, and Raglai ethnic groups. Tens of thousands of villagers downstream were expected to face negative impacts on their livelihood, largely depending on natural resources and riparian ecosystems [1;2]<br/><br/>While the dam may serve Vietnam’s growing demand for electricity, particularly caused by rapid urbanization processes, environmental and social costs are largely carried by the rural populations and Vietnam’s ethnic minorities.<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Dai Ninh Hydropower Project, Dong Nai River, Vietnam</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/vietnam">Vietnam</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Binh Thuan Province</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Ham Thuan Bac District</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Water Management</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Land acquisition conflicts<br /> Dams and water distribution conflicts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /><a href='/commodity/electricity'>Electricity</a><br /><a href='/commodity/water'>Water</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The Dai Ninh hydroelectric plant has an installed capacity of 300MW, provided by two turbines of 150 MW each. Annual electricity production was reported to amount to 1.2 billion kWh per year. It is a multipurpose project that also provides irrigation infrastructure to the surrounding areas [1]. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">The total project size amounts to 2,000ha, 1,900ha of which are covered by the reservoir. Around half of the reservoir land was agricultural land, the other half contained forest land [1].<br/><br/>The dam is operated by Vietnamese state-owned company EVN (Eletricity of Vietnam) [1].<br/><br/>A feasibility study was financed by the World Bank in 1995 [3]. The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Rehabilitation and Resettlement plans were conducted by the Vietnam Power Investigation and Design Company No.2 (PIDC 2) and the Italian Lotti & Associati company [2].<br/><br/>Another feasibility study was financed by the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) in 1996 [2]. It was conducted by the engineering consultant company SNC-Lavalin [1].<br/><br/>The total investment cost was estimated to amount to 440 million USD. The dam was largely funded through Japanese Official Development Assistance (ODA). 85% of the investment was provided through a loan from the Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), the rest was provided by the Vietnamese government [1].<br/><br/>The project was constructed by Japanese Hazama company and a Japanese-Vietnamese Joint Venture Kajima-Kumagai-Gumi-Song Da Corporation [4].<br/><br/>Technical equipment was reportedly designed, manufactured and installed by Toshiba and Nissho Iwai. Project consultation was provided by Japanese companies Nippon Koei and Electric Power Development Corporation [1].<br/><br/>It was reported that up to 14,000 people were forcefully displaced, and that several tens of thousands livelihoods were negatively affected [1].<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>2,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>440,000,000 USD</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>14,000 resettled, tens of thousands negatively affected downstream</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>01/1995</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/the-electricity-of-vietnam-group-evn'>The Electricity of Vietnam Group (EVN)</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a><br /><a href='/company/vietnam-power-investigation-and-design-company-no2-pidc-2'>Vietnam Power Investigation and Design Company No.2 (PIDC 2) <small>(PIDC 2)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>consultancy, engingeering</small><br /><a href='/company/lotti-associati-spa'>Lotti & Associati S.P.A</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/italy'><small>Italy</small></a><br /><a href='/company/snc-lavalin'>SNC-Lavalin </a> from <a href='/country-of-company/canada'><small>Canada</small></a> - <small>engineering, consultancy, construction</small><br /><a href='/company/toshiba'>Toshiba</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/japan'><small>Japan</small></a><br /><a href='/company/nippon-koei'>Nippon Koei </a> from <a href='/country-of-company/japan'><small>Japan</small></a> - <small>consultancy, engineering</small><br /><a href='/company/j-power-electric-power-development-corporation'>J-Power / Electric Power Development Corporation <small>(EPDC)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/japan'><small>Japan</small></a> - <small>energy industry</small><br /><a href='/company/hazama-ando-corporation'>Hazama Ando Corporation</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/japan'><small>Japan</small></a> - <small>construction</small><br /><a href='/company/kajima-kumagai-gumi-song-da-corporation'>Song Da Corporation </a> from <a href='/country-of-company/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>construction</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD)<br/><br/>Government of Vietnam</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/world-bank'>The World Bank <small>(WB)</small></a><br /><a href='/institution/japan-bank-for-international-cooperation'>Japan Bank for International Cooperation <small>(JBIC)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/japan'><small>Japan</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>International Rivers<br/><br/>Probe International</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LOW (some local organising)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Fishermen<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> International ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Ethnically/racially discriminated groups<br /> Ethnic minorities K'ho, Churu; Chil; Cham, and Raglai</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Public campaigns</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Food insecurity (crop damage), Other Environmental impacts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>Potential increases of water-borne diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Infectious diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Compensation<br /> Migration/displacement</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The project goes on.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> [1] Power-technology.com online. "Dai Ninh Hydro Plant, Vietnam" (accessed 15/7/2015)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.power-technology.com/projects/dai-nanh/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [2] International Rivers, 2001 (online): "Planned Dams in Vietnam" (accessed 15/7/2015)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.internationalrivers.org/km/resources/planned-dams-in-vietnam-4079" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [4] Probe International (15/10/2008): "Rethinking Japanese ODA in Vietnam's electricity industry " (accessed 15/7/2015)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://eprf.probeinternational.org/node/6609" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>[3] World Bank 1995. Document on the Viet Nam-Dai Ninh Hydro Power Project</strong> Source: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1997/09/05/000009265_3971229181727/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/world_Bnak_1995__multi0page.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Dai Ninh dam</strong> Source: https://ssl.panoramio.com/photo/38906870<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/38906870.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>A. Scheidel (ICTA-UAB)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>16/07/2015</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>