Daimiel Natural Park and Agriculture, Spain

Description
The area is a Ramsar site. It contains the last relict of an endangered ecosystem, known as Las Tablas de Daimiel. It is part of the drainage basin of the Guadiana River, with significant surface and ground connections, draining into lagoon systems (totaling 22,000 ha). The main aquifer that feeds the basin is the aquifer 23, the largest in Spain with nearly 10,000 hm3 capacity and with hard and brackish waters (as the area contains limestone and gypsum).
See more...
Basic Data
NameDaimiel Natural Park and Agriculture, Spain
CountrySpain
ProvinceCiudad Real - Castilla-La Mancha
SiteDaimiel
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Wetlands and coastal zone management
Water access rights and entitlements
Establishment of reserves/national parks
Specific CommoditiesWater
Other agricultural products
Corn/Maize
Project Details and Actors
Project Details
There are between 10,000 and 50,000 illegal wells, no one knows exactly how much water is extracted. The area that shoul be flooded regularly, is not flooded.
See more...
Project Area (in hectares)200000
Level of Investment (in USD)87,000,000
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population340000
Start Date1973
Company Names or State EnterprisesAsociación de Titulares de Aguas Privadas del Acuífero del Campo de Montiel, ASAJA
Comunidad General de Usuarios del Acuífero de la Mancha Occidental
Relevant government actorsSpanish government, Regional Administration of Castilla La Mancha , Confederación Hidrográfica Guadalquivir y C.H. Júcar, Consejería Medio Ambiente Castilla-La Mancha
International and Financial InstitutionsEuropean Union (EU)
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersGreenpeace, SEO/Birdlife, Ecologistas en Acción, WWF, Asociacion de consumidores de Castilla-La Mancha. Movimiento por las Tablas de Daimiel y el Guadiana. ADENA, ANEA
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LATENT (no visible organising at the moment)
When did the mobilization beginMobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt
Groups MobilizingFarmers
International ejos
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationDevelopment of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Desertification/Drought, Fires, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
Potential: Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Global warming, Soil contamination, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality
OtherLack of flloding in this wetland because of intensive use of groundwater through wells, for commercial irrigated agriculture
Health ImpactsPotential: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Infectious diseases
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures
Potential: Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseEnvironmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area
Institutional changes
Negotiated alternative solution
Strengthening of participation
Application of existing regulations
Development of AlternativesEnforce existing legislation, greater control in wells, awareness and sensitivity of water users.
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.This is a complex conflict from the different perspectives and stakeholders (water users, farmers, environmentalists, businesses, etc.). Since the problem of overexploitation of the aquifer began, resulting in a loss of ecological values of the area and the natural park 'Tablas de Daimiel', many solutions have been proposed, none satisfactory.

The distribution of impacts and environmental costs, affects both those who now live in the area but there is also a more comprehensive impact, the loss of a unique ecosystem in the world and of great importance for many migratory birds and other flora and fauna. In addition to qualitative and quantitative loss of underground water reserves, with a very slow renewal period, This affects both the current population and the future.

The solution are not diversions or dams to bring more water, but a sustainable way of farming consistent with environmental values.

Thus, this conflict might fit into what we might call 'environmental justice' and even more 'water justice'
Sources and Materials
Legislations

La Directiva de Aguas Potables (The Drinking Water Directive: 93/83/EC)

La Directiva de Nitratos (The Nitrates Directive 91/676/EEC)

La Directiva de Aguas de Baño (The Bathing Water Directive 76/160/EEC)

La Directiva Marco del Agua (The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC)

La Directiva de Tratamiento de Aguas Residuales (The Urban Water Treatment Directive /271/EEC)

References

Hablemos del acuífero 23 / Mariano Velasco Lizcano

Agua, minería y medio ambiente: libro homenaje al profesor Rafael Fernández Rubio

Links

[click to view]

[click to view]

[click to view]

[click to view]

[click to view]

[click to view]

[click to view]

[click to view]

[click to view]

[click to view]

Other CommentsThis could be considered a water justice conflict
Meta Information
ContributorLucia Peña Armijo
Last update13/07/2014
Comments