Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant, Guangdong, China

In 1986 after Chernobyl, there was an Anti-Daya Bay Nuclear Plant Campaign developed under the shadow of political uncertainty over Hong Kong’s Future and coincided with the drafting process of the Basic Law of the Hong Kong SAR.


Description

Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (“DBNPS”), which currently includes Guangdong Nuclear Power Station ("GNPS") and Lingao Nuclear Power Station ("LNPS"), is located at Daya Bay about 50 km north-east of the Hong Kong city centre.  About 70% of GNPS's electricity output is supplied to Hong Kong. The output of LNPS is entirely supplied to Guangdong Province.[1] According to HKNIC, the electricity produced by Daya Bay saves Hong Kong each year some 7.5 million tonnes of carbon dioxide, some ten thousands tonnes of sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, as well as hundreds of tonnes of airborne particulates that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere by fossil fuel generation. Some additional 10% is also being imported from late 2014 to 2018 on a temporary basis.[2]

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Basic Data
NameDaya Bay Nuclear Power Plant, Guangdong, China
CountryChina
ProvinceGuangdong
Site Daya Bay in Longgang District, Shenzhen
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Nuclear
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Nuclear power plants
Specific CommoditiesElectricity
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsDaya Bay Nuclear Power Station (“DBNPS”), which currently includes Guangdong Nuclear Power Station ("GNPS") and Lingao Nuclear Power Station ("LNPS"), is located at Daya Bay about 50 km north-east of the Hong Kong city center.

The power station consists of two reactor units of French design Framatome 900 MWe class Pressurised Water Reactors.

Unit 1 and Unit 2 began commercial operation in February and May 1994 respectively.

The gross power output of each unit is 984 MWe.

The Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station is owned by Guangdong Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company, Limited (GNPJVC). CLP is a 25% equity partner of GNPJVC through its 100% owned subsidiary, Hong Kong Nuclear Investment Company Limited (HKNIC).

The Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (Daya Bay) is managed and operated by the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Operations & Management Company, Limited (DNMC) in which CLP also has partial ownership (12.5% stakeholding) through a sister company of HKNIC.

CLP has nominated key managerial positions at Daya Bay and DNMC to contribute towards nuclear safety and to support the management of the facilities to international levels.

Daya Bay produces around 14 billion kWh of electricity per year, of which 70% is exported to CLP's Hong Kong system. In September 2009, the supply contract between Daya Bay and CLP was extended to 2034.

To ensure that more clean and cost-competitive energy is provided to Hong Kong, an agreement has been reached in securing a temporary additional supply of a small amount of nuclear from Daya Bay, to increase its electricity supply to Hong Kong from 70% to approximately 80% for late 2014 to 2018.

CLP: China Light & Power, CLP Holdings Ltd.

HKNIC: Hong Kong Nuclear Investment Co. Ltd. (wholly-owned subsidiary of CLP)

CLPNIC: CLP Nuclear Investment Co., Ltd. (wholly-owned subsidiary of CLP)

CGN: China General Nuclear Power Corporation

GNPJVC: Guangdong Nuclear Power Joint Venture Co., Ltd.

GNIC: Guangdong Nuclear Investment Co., Ltd. (wholly-owned subsidiary of CGNPC)

DNMC: Daya Bay Nuclear Power Operations & Management Co., Ltd.

GNPS: Guangdong Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

***Please refer to the offical website of CLP for the clear diagram about the holding structure of this project.

***For the amount of investment, there are different numbers, we are using the Baidu Baike data here. https://baike.baidu.com/item/%E5%A4%A7%E4%BA%9A%E6%B9%BE%E6%A0%B8%E7%94%B5%E7%AB%99%E5%BB%BA%E8%AE%BE%E5%B7%A5%E7%A8%8B
Project Area (in hectares)1,000
Level of Investment (in USD)4,600,000,000.00
Type of PopulationSemi-urban
Potential Affected Population10 million
Start Date07/05/1986
Company Names or State EnterprisesChina Light & Power (CLP) from Hong Kong SAR, China - CLP is a 25% equity partner of GNPJVC through its 100% owned subsidiary, Hong Kong Nuclear Investment Company Limited (HKNIC).
China General Nuclear Power Group (CGN) from China
Areva (Areva) from France
General Electric Company (GEC) from United Kingdom - equipment supplier
Relevant government actors-The Central Government of China

-Guangdong Provincial Government

-the Hong Kong Government

-中华人民共和国水利电力部 (中华人民共和国曾经设立的一个部级单位,后被撤销。它曾是中华人民共和国国务院下设的统筹规划管理全国水利电力工作的政府职能部门,国务院的组成机构之一。https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E4%B8%AD%E5%8D%8E%E4%BA%BA%E6%B0%91%E5%85%B1%E5%92%8C%E5%9B%BD%E6%B0%B4%E5%88%A9%E7%94%B5%E5%8A%9B%E9%83%A8)
International and Financial InstitutionsHong Kong Nuclear Investment Company Limited (HKNIC ) from Hong Kong SAR, China
Environmental justice organisations and other supporters-CA (The Conservation Association)

-FoE (Friends of Earth)

-the Hong Kong Professional Teachers’ Union

-the Hong Kong Christian Industrial Committee-

-the Hong Kong Social Workers’ General Union

-the Hong Kong Federation of Students
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingLocal ejos
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Forms of MobilizationDevelopment of a network/collective action
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Other Environmental impacts
Otherradiation
Health ImpactsPotential: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Deaths, Other environmental related diseases, Other Health impacts
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseStrengthening of participation
Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution
Application of existing regulations
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.The protests eventually receded after the movement was counteracted by a corporate public relations campaign (The China Light & Power Co.) and both the British colonial state and socialist Chinese state showed no sign of concession. The Anti-Daya Bay campaign died down rapidly after the Guangdong Nuclear Power Plant Joint Venture Company and the (British and French) suppliers signed contracts for the plant. Still, this was perhaps the only case in Hong Kong where a major campaign of environmental protest was organized by a coalition of social groups with a strong grassroots element. In retrospect, the Anti-Daya Bay campaign successfully developed a sense of solidarity among the core leadership in the Joint Conference. It also contributed to the development of a sense of identity among Hong Kong people vis-a-vis the British colonial state and the PRC.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

[1] LC Paper No. CB(2)767/10-11(02) Panel on Security. Background brief prepared by the Legislative Council Secretariat for the special meeting on 17 January 2011. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station Notification Mechanism
[click to view]

References

[4] Yok-shiu, F. Lee, and Alvin Y. So. Asia's environmental movements: comparative perspectives. ME Sharpe, 1999. pp62-64
[click to view]

[3] The Unknown on the Doorstep: Hong Kong's fears concerning Daya Bay, China's first major nuclear power station and the Public Relations Challenges. By Albert Chan, Assistant Public Affairs Manager of Hong Kong Nuclear Investment Co Ltd.
[click to view]

[9] 侯逸民. 反对兴建大亚湾核电站的浪潮及其宁息. Diss. 1991.
[click to view]

[8] Michael C. Gallagher (1991) NUCLEAR POWER: Hong Kong fears Chinese Chernobyl, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 47:8, 9-46
[click to view]

[6] Yee, Herbert S., and Wong Yiu-Chung. "Hong Kong: the politics of the Daya Bay nuclear plant debate." International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-) 63.4 (1987): 617-630.
[click to view]

Links

[5] Debate on nuclear plant project heating up
[click to view]

[7] China to Build Nuclear Power Plant Despite Hong Kong Safety Fears
[click to view]

[11] Anti-Nuclear Demonstrations in Hong Kong
[click to view]

[2] HKNIC: About Daya Bay.
[click to view]

[10] Chinese Nuclear Plant Experienced a Small Leak Last Month, a Stakeholder Says
[click to view]

Other Documents

Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station
[click to view]

Greenpeace: Save our home from nuclear risks!
[click to view]

No Nukes Demonstration in Hong Kong after Fukushima
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorEnvJustice, ICTA-UAB
Last update02/11/2017
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