Deforestation & colonization of Indigenous Ashaninka Territory, Peru

The Ashaninka have been resisting the colonization of their territory for centuries but the rainforest frontier keeps moving forward. It was first for timber but it is also now for plantations.


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"> The Ashaninka people are the largest indigenous group of the central Peruvian Amazon region. In the 1980s decade they suffered the impacts of the <a>violent conflicts</a> between the <b>Shining Path</b> (the rebel Maoist guerilla group <b>Sendero Luminoso</b>) and the governmental troops. It has been estimated that <b>10% of the Ashaninka population was killed</b> due to these confrontations in which they were not involved. The <b>Forestry Act</b> was the subject of <b>fierce protests</b> during its discussion and approval. Still, it came into force. And in 2003, the first public auction of <b>forest concessions</b> were <b>granted in the Ucayali region</b>, located in the Central Forest in the Amazonian part of the eastern Andean foothills in Peru. This process, managed by the Amazonian Forest Consortium, completely ignored any prior consultation with the local indigenous peoples. Trees cutting in Ashaninka territory caused deforestation, forced displacement, <b>deteriorated indigenous’ livelihoods</b> as well as it was the main cause of the conflict and violence that spread through the region. In September 2014, <b><a>four Ashaninka leaders were killed</a> </b>by illegal loggers. The <b>murders remained unpunished</b>. The AIDESEP continues denouncing the inadequacy between the State’s pretended good intentions as with the signature of an <a>agreement with Norway and Germany</a> in 2014 aiming to reduce deforestation and the actual national policies <b>favoring the extension of plantations</b>, as for instance of <a>palm oil</a>. The Ashaninka people are also endangered by other projects. In 2010, as the result of <a>an energy agreement with Brazil</a>, the Peruvian national government plans ahead the construction of two <a>dams on the rivers Ene and Tambo</a>. The woman Ruth Buendía Mestoquiari, President of <a>CARE</a>, received the <a>Goldman Environmental Price</a> in 2014 for her struggle and leadership. <a>Another conflict description on the Atlas</a> gives specific input about the Ashaninka peoples’ mobilization against the mega-dams.  </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Deforestation & colonization of Indigenous Ashaninka Territory, Peru</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/peru">Peru</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Atalaya Province (Ucayali Region)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Logging and non timber extraction<br /> Deforestation<br /> Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/cellulose'>Cellulose</a><br /><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">In 2003, four Spanish-Peruvian companies were granted a 40 year concession for the exploitation of 40,000 hectares of forest. Soon after they made a consortium that allowed them to log more than 180,000 hectares of forest. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>182414</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td> 99,117</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/partes-y-piezas-sac'>Partes y Piezas SAC</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/peru'><small>Peru</small></a><br /><a href='/company/sac-anaconda'>SAC-Anaconda</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/peru'><small>Peru</small></a><br /><a href='/company/safi-peru'>SAFI Peru</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/peru'><small>Peru</small></a><br /><a href='/company/sac-shihuahuaco'>SAC-Shihuahuaco</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/peru'><small>Peru</small></a><br /><a href='/company/cfa'>CFA</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/spain'><small>Spain</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA) - Peru, Government of Peru, Minitry of Economy and Finance - Peru</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>La Comunidad Asháninka Marankiari Bajo (CIAMB) - Peru, Organización Indígena de la Región Atalaya (OIRA) - Peru, Asociacion Interetnica de Desarrollo de la Selva Peruana (AIDESEP) - Peru, Forest People Programme - UK, World Movement for Tropical Forests</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Social movements<br /> Ethnically/racially discriminated groups</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Air pollution, Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Accidents, Malnutrition, Deaths</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Increase in violence and crime, Militarization and increased police presence</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Deaths<br /> Land demarcation<br /> Migration/displacement<br /> Strengthening of participation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>The stop of the legal and illegal timber exploitation, the retrieve of the lands to their initial owners, and the restoration of the area. Granting the indigenous peoples with property title registration. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Timber exploitation and plantations' multiplication continues to be the main activity in the area and there is a high amount of illegal logging. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Article 80, 2004, of the World Rainforest Movement<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Forestry Law 27 308, July 2000<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> El trabajo forzoso en la extraccion de la madera en la Amazonia Peruana. Eduardo Bedoya, 2004.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---declaration/documents/publication/wcms_082056.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Indigenous peoples. Their forests, struggles and rights. World Rainforest Movement, 2005<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.forestpeoples.org/topics/rights-land-natural-resources/publication/2011/indigenous-peoples-their-forests-struggles-and" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> La deforestacion evitada y los derechos de los Pueblos Indigenas y las comunidades locales. Forest People Programme, 2007<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.forestpeoples.org/es/topics/un-redd/publication/2010/red-%C2%BFalerta-roja-la-deforestaci%C3%B3n-evitada-y-los-derechos-de-los-pueb" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Asuntos Indigenas 4/06, Explotacion Forestal y Pueblos Indgenas. Iwgia, 2006<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.iwgia.org/iwgia_files_publications_files/0378_AI_4_06.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Los Ashaninka, Base de Datos de pueblos indigenas u originarios, Ministerio de Cultura del Peru<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://bdpi.cultura.gob.pe/pueblo/ashaninka" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Liberation Through Land Rights in the Peruvian Amazon, P. García Hierro, S. Hvalkof, A. Gray, IWGIA Document n.90, 1998<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://books.google.es/books?id=rjgVn5AHFVIC&pg=PA19&lpg=PA19&dq=aidesep+Ashaninka&source=bl&ots=d01w-TFDUg&sig=k_pFpw5MAIlZ2ICzexjEedGSRKc&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjgyZTekoHLAhUBhhoKHYKxB98Q6AEIVDAJ#v=onepage&q=aidesep%20Ashaninka&f=false" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Peru - Declaration concerning the threat of the Pakitzapango Dam by the Ashaninka communities of the Ene Valley, Forest Peoples Programme, 26/04/2009<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.forestpeoples.org/es/node/564" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Haciendo visible lo invisible - Perspectivas indígenas sobre la deforestación en la Amazonía peruana, AIDESEP & Forest Peoples Programme, Noviembre 2014<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.lifemosaic.net/images/uploads/Resources/Docs%20Es/fpp_peru_report_25nov_internet.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Gobernanza Forestal y Derechos Indígenas: claves para el éxito de la nueva Alianza Forestal entre Perú, Alemania y Noruega, Comunicado de prensa, 23/09/2014<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://eia-global.org/images/uploads/EIA_Pronunciamiento_23_Sept_Norway_Peru_Germany.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Contrarrestar la explotación maderera es una de las preocupaciones asháninkas, Info Region, 25/10/2011<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.inforegion.pe/portada/120965/contrarrestar-la-explotacion-maderera-es-una-de-las-preocupaciones-ashaninkas/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> 4 Asháninka assassinated in the community of Saweto – Ucayali, AIDESEP, 14/09/2014<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.aidesep.org.pe/4-ashaninka-assassinated-in-the-community-of-saweto-ucayali/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Deforestation in Peru: Building a dramatic future in the Amazon and the Andean Region, Coha, 28/09/2015<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.coha.org/deforestation-in-peru-building-a-dramatic-future-in-the-amazon-and-the-andean-region/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> PERU: Lideresa asháninka es elegida heroína ambiental a nivel mundial, 04/2014<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://p.se-todo.com/pravo/17531/index.html?page=7" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Goldman Envrironmental Price, Ruth Buendía, 2014<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.goldmanprize.org/recipient/ruth-buendia/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Taladores ilegales asesinaron a líderes asháninkas, afirma Defensoría, RPP Noticias, 10/09/2014<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://rpp.pe/lima/actualidad/taladores-ilegales-asesinaron-a-lideres-ashaninkas-afirma-defensoria-noticia-724336" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Caso de asesinato de Ashaninkas esta paralizado por falta de presupuesto, Diario16, 24/10/2014<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://diario16.pe/noticia/54116-caso-asesinato-ashaninkas-esta-paralizado-falta-presupuesto" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Qué se juega en el acuerdo energético Perú-Brasil, M. Salazar, IPS, 17/06/2010<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.ipsnoticias.net/2010/06/que-se-juega-en-el-acuerdo-energetico-peru-brasil/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> La fiebre energética de Brasil inundará la selva peruana de megahidroeléctricas, El Mundo.es, 17/06/2010<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.elmundo.es/america/2010/06/17/noticias/1276730330.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Perú - Ministerio de Cultura<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://bdpi.cultura.gob.pe/pueblo/ashaninka" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Swissinfo - Humala crea Parque Nacional para protegerlo del narcotráfico y tala ilegal<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.swissinfo.ch/spa/afp/humala-crea-parque-nacional-para-protegerlo-del-narcotr%25C3%25A1fico-y-tala-ilegal/41766060" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> CLAES, Ambiental.net - El mayor decomiso de madera ilegal de la Amazonia peruana<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Terra - Indígenas de Perú siguen amenazados por presuntos asesinos de sus líderes<br />23 ENE<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://noticias.terra.es/ciencia/indigenas-de-peru-siguen-amenazados-por-presuntos-asesinos-de-sus-lideres,6845fb4e82325ddb11ce39b3f34db213vjm2n74e.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Peru Promotes Oil Palm Expansion Despite Devastating Consequences for Indigenous Peoples & Amazon, EIA, 14/10/2015<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://eia-global.org/blog/peru-promotes-oil-palm-expansion-despite-devastating-consequences-for-indig" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Forest Governance and Indigenous Rights Key to Success of New Peru, Germany, Norway Partnership, EIA, 23/09/2014<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://eia-global.org/news-media/forest-governance-and-indigenous-rights-key-to-success-of-new-partnership-b" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Territorio Ashaninka, Eaf Producions, 10/06/2015<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ScefaX4Re5k" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Asháninka, treinta años de resistencia indígena en Perú por conservar la tierra, RTVE, 01/11/2013<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.rtve.es/noticias/20131101/ashaninka-treinta-anos-lucha-indigena-conservar-su-tierra-peru/780705.shtml" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Asháninkas en defensa de su territori, Eaf Producions, 05/05/2009<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DKKfjEptvUM" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Geographical location of Asháninka Territory<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://bdpi.cultura.gob.pe/mapa/382" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> CIAMB PERU, Comunidad Asháninka Marankiari Bajo, Youtube Page<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/user/CiambPeru" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Asháninka Marankiari Bajo Community (CIAMB)</strong> Source: http://esmiperu.blogspot.com.es/<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/peru_3.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Ashaninka women in Peruvian Amazon forest</strong> http://latincorrespondent.com / Rodrigo Abd<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/last_peru_women.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Lucie Greyl</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>22/02/2016</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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