Deforestion and land confict in Gleba Nova Olinda, Para, Brazil

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">This conflict pits timber traders and landowners against communities carrying out small scale extractive activities. In 2009, the conflict came to a head when people from over 40 indigenous and traditional communities, frustrated after more than a decade of failed negotiations with the state for territorial rights closed the Arapiuns River to logging traffic and sequestered two barges full of timber. The protestors blockaded the river for a month waiting for the state and federal governments to address the problem. At the end they set fire to the 2,000 cubic meters of wood on the barges. The fires blazed on for three days.[1] The Gleba Nova Olinda has a total area of about 87,000 hectares and is located in the municipality of Santarém, Pará state, Brazil. It is composed of state public land with a rich and abundant sociobiodiversity, being occupied by 14 communities (Sao Raimundo do Alto Arua, Sao Francisco, Novo Paraiso, Cachoeira do Arua, Gapo Açu, Sao Luís,Sociedade dos Parentes, Fe em Deus, Vista Alegre, Repartimento, Mariazinha), three of which are indigenous communities (Sao Jose III, Novo Lugar e Cachoeira do Maro) of the Borari people. Located in the area of influence of the BR-163 road, it is characterized by highly dynamic and violent processes due to the rapid formation of land and labor markets. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> Thus, violence is used as a mechanism of land appropriation, the absence of the state works as an ordering vector of the process, causing rapid spread of conflicts related to the use and control of natural resources and the intensification of migratory flows. <br/><br/> Alongside the rapid occupation of the rural areas, there is also the growing urbanization of the region, with the growth of the cities of Santarém, Juriti and Itaituba, to where migratory flows are attracted by new economic opportunities (agribusiness, mining and services). <br/><br/> Since the 1990s, the Gleba Nova Olinda has undergone an intense environmental conflict, marked by violence, exclusion and disputes over land, forest resources and even symbolic struggles over the definition of the identity of traditional communities (remarkably among those who claim a Borari indigenous ancestry and those who deny the recognition of this distinction ethnic/cultural). <br/><br/> The expansion of monoculture of soybean is another process that has generated negative impacts on local communities. About 50 farmers, many of them from the southern region of the country, have rural properties in Glebe. These landowners expel villagers from these areas or prevent access to many areas that were previously considered the common property of communities. There are complaints that many properties are located in areas of public lands, acquired illegally with the intermediation of corrupt officials in the State. Many of these farms are located on the traditional territory of the Borari Indians, which creates conflicts with them. An employee of ITERPA was caught by IBAMA inspectors as an intermediary in land grabbing in the region and responsible for a scheme that would have illegally settled at least 120,000 hectares of land to farmers. <br/><br/> This conflict has led to violent actions of both parties, including death threats to community leaders, such as against the indigenous chief Crisomar dos Santos Costa in March 2013, and the destruction of timber companies assets (through pressure on state officials responsible for conducting studies in the region). For this reason, in recent years there have been an intensification of the actions of FUNAI and INCRA agents, and prosecutors interested in mediating the conflict in order to prevent the escalation of violence. The State Government, through ITERPA and IDEFLOR, also has performed actions in the region, as it has an interest in the definition of the limits of each community in order to liberate the land from farmland to grant public forest areas. Such a process would permit exploring these areas by private companies through competitive bidding. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Deforestion and land confict in Gleba Nova Olinda, Para, Brazil</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/brazil">Brazil</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Para</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Santarem</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>LOW country/state level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Deforestation<br /> Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp<br /> Intensive food production (monoculture and livestock)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /><a href='/commodity/timber'>Timber</a><br /><a href='/commodity/soybeans'>Soybeans</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">,000 hectares of land has been given illegally to farmers and timber companies. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> farmers of soybean monoculture are active in the region. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>87000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>600</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>1999</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/cooperativa-dos-produtores-do-oeste-do-para-western-para-rural-producers-cooperative'>Cooperativa dos produtores do Oeste do Para/Western Pará Rural Producers Cooperative <small>(Cooepar)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/brazil'><small>Brazil</small></a><br /><a href='/company/rondobel-industria-e-comercio-de-madeira-rondobel-insustry-and-trade-of-timber'>Rondobel Industria e Comercio de Madeira/Rondobel Insustry and Trade of Timber</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/brazil'><small>Brazil</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Land Institute of Para - ITERPA, Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural, Resources - IBAMA., State Department of Technology and Environment - SECTAM, Federal Public Ministry - MPF, Forestry Development of the State of Para - IDEFLOR, National Indian Foundation - FUNAI</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Pastoral Land Commission (CPT), Federation of Agricultural Workers (FETRAGRI), Rural Workers Unions (STR) of Western Pará (STR) Greenpeace</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Fishermen<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Trade unions<br /> Local scientists/professionals</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Blockades<br /> Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Land occupation<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches<br /> Property damage/arson</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Desertification/Drought, Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil erosion, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Deaths<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Accidents, Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Deaths<br /> Land demarcation<br /> Court decision (victory for environmental justice)<br /> Strengthening of participation<br /> Violent targeting of activists<br /> Application of existing regulations</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Indigenous communities demand the demarcation of their land in order to continue their traditional way of life. Other communities demand the implementation of policies that allow the extraction of the fruits of the forest in a sustainable way.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The Borari Indians have had their traditional territory recognized, but the activities of logging and farmers persist causing environmental and social impacts in the region.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> IDEFLOR. Pre-annoucement of forest concessions Arapiuns Mamuru. Santarém, 19 mar. 2010. Available at: <br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> MAP OF CONFLICTS INVOLVING ENVIRONMENTAL INJUSTICE AND HEALTH IN BRAZIL. In Glebe Nova Olinda and surroundings, Borari People, peasants and bordering fight against landgrabbers, loggers and soybean farmers, who seek increasingly expelled them from their l<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> INDIGENOUS PEOPLE BORARI-ARAPIUN. Open letter to Margaret Sekaggya-UN Special Rapporteur on the situation of Human rights defenders. Blog Shap Tongue (Lingua Ferina), Santarem, 19 nov. 2010. <br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> SAUER, Sergio e MACHADO, Diego D. Report of mission to Santarem: human rights violations in indigenous and quilombola communities in the Arapiuns River. Brasília: Brazil Dhesca Platform, 2010. 36 p. <br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> GREENPEACE Conflict in Pará awaits Government action. Sao Paulo, 21 mar. 2007. , <br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> MILANEZ, Felipe. Fear and tension in the West. Rolling Stone, Sao Paulo, ed. 49, 2010. , <br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> NOVAES, Thiago Valente. Pre-annoucement of forest concessions Mamuru-minutes of public hearing Arapiuns-Santarém-PA. IDEFLOR, Santarém, March 19, 2010. , <br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> PENA, Fabio. Federal Police investigating death of Cacique Crisomar Maro River. Combate ao Racismo Ambiental, 28 Mar. 2013. <br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> ,<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Diogo Rocha</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>