Druzhba Adria Oil Pipeline, Croatia

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The ‘Druzhba Adria’ project aims to connect the pipelines ‘Druzhba’ and ‘Adria’ in order to transport Russian oil to world markets. The plan includes the idea of pumping Russian oil from the Druzhba pipeline starting in Samara (Russia) southwards via Hungarian and Croatian pipelines, to the Omisalj port (Krk Island, on the Croatian Adriatic coast - point on the map). This project includes reversing Croatia’s transit oil pipeline Adria oil (Jadranski Naftovod - Janad), originally built as a one-direction link for transporting crude from the Adriatic coast to the north and east, in the opposite direction — to carry Russian oil for export. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">The ‘Druzhba Adria’ pipeline would be 3200 km long and would go through Belarus, The Ukraine, Slovakia, Hungary and Croatia. Overall costs of the project are estimated at $300 million. The project was planned in 3 phases in relation to the pipeline capacity. In the first phase the planned capacity of the pipeline is 5 million tonnes of crude oil, while in the second and the third phases planned capacities are 10 and 15 million tonnes. Two Russian oil companies (YUKOS and Tyumen) have provided guarantees to transport 2.5 million tonnes each. <br/><br/>In December 2002, Croatia signed an agreement on the project with Russia and other transit countries. This decision was not preceded by Parliamentary discussion. The agreement was signed for a 10 year period with a planned extension for another 10 years. However, the project provoked strong opposition by local and national environmental organisations. They claimed that the project will have devastating impacts for the ecosystem of the Kvarner gulf and for local tourism activities. They highlighted the high environmental risk from oil spills and accidents, as well as the risk of contamination of the Adriatic Sea by ballast water from oil ships. Finally, opponents argued that Croatia will have insignificant profit from the project. <br/><br/>The start of the project was planned in 2004, but it was stopped in 2005 by the Croatian Government, because the relevant authority did not approve the project EIA and due to the pressure of environmental activists and local residents. In 2010, Prime Ministers of Jadranka Kosor, Croatia and Vladimir Putin, Russia discussed the project, but they did not come to a new agreement. However, there are still groups interested in the project's renewal.<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Druzhba Adria Oil Pipeline, Croatia</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/croatia">Croatia</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Primorsko-goranska County </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Omišalj</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/crude-oil'>Crude oil</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">3200 km long pipeline with maximal planned capacity of 15 million tonnes of crude oil.</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">The agreed cost of oil transit was $0.64 a tonne per 100 kilometres.<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>3200 km long</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>70, 000,000 (The Croatian part of the pipeline network Janaf)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Unknown</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>18,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>16/12/2002</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">End Date</td><td>26/10/2005</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/janaf-dd-jadranski-naftovod'>JANAF d.d. – (JADRANSKI NAFTOVOD)</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/croatia'><small>Croatia</small></a> - <small>Croatian company in charge of Croatian part of the pipeline </small><br /><a href='/company/yukos'>YUKOS </a> - <small>Russian oil company in charge of transporting the oil from Russia </small><br /><a href='/company/tyumen'>Tyumen</a> - <small>Russian oil company in charge of transporting the oil from Russia </small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>The Croatian Government, President and Prime Minister; The Russian Government, President <br/><br/></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Eko kvarner - http://www.ekokvarner.hr; Green Istria http://www.zelena-istra.hr; Franjevački svjetovni red; Zelena Akcija</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Fishermen<br /> Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Social movements<br /> Local scientists/professionals</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)<br /> Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Development of alternative proposals<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches<br /> Arguments for the rights of mother nature</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Fires, Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Oil spills, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Stopped</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Court decision (victory for environmental justice)<br /> Negotiated alternative solution<br /> Project cancelled<br /> Project temporarily suspended</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Eco-association “Eko Kvarner” believed three conditions are necessary for the approval of the project: thorough reconstruction of the oil pipeline through Gorski kotar (where it was laid down above strategic Croatia’s drinking water reserves), that no harbour in the east coast of the Adriatic Sea can become an export port for oil and that the existing tanker transport in the Adriatic Sea is to be gradually decreased by substituting it with land transport by oil pipelines. <br/><br/>The local people of Krk Island stated that their main activity is tourism and not oil business that would negatively impact the environment, while providing jobs to only a small number of people.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Yes</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The project was stopped in 2005, after the refusal of the EIA. The stopping of the project is consider a big victory of civil society groups. However, there is still high political interest in this project. As Croatia has recently joined the European Union (July, 2013) this has made it an even more attractive object of Russian energy interests.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Mesic and Putin on Druzhba Adria<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://dalje.com/en-croatia/mesic-and-putin-on-druzhba-adria/55622" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Croatia gives fresh blow to Druzhba-Adria pipeline<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.xpatloop.com/news/6526" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Družba Adria: Naftovod uvjet za plinovod<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.jutarnji.hr/druzba-adria/840443/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Links to various articles on the project (on Croatian)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.mojaenergija.hr/index.php/me/Aktualno/Izabrane-teme/Druzba-Adria/Vijesti-vezane-uz-projekt-Druzba-Adria" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Igor Sechin Door-Crashing in Croatia<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.refworld.org/docid/51cd4d864.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Six nations sign Druzhba-Adria project deal<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.russiajournal.com/node/13001" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> INTERVJU Vjeran Piršić: Ne smijemo postati zemlja iz filmova o Jamesu Bondu<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.novilist.hr/Vijesti/Rijeka/Vjeran-Pirsic-Ne-smijemo-postati-zemlja-iz-filmova-o-Jamesu-Bondu" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Marijan Lesica govori o projektu "Družba Adria"<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tOD0vZZDDiQ" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Druzhba Adria Pipline</strong> ‘Druzhba Adria’ project aimed to connect the pipelines ‘Druzhba’ and ‘Adria’ in direction from Samara (Russia) to Omišalj (Croatia) in order to transport Russian oil to world markets<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/1.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Protest against the project</strong> Many eco-associations and civil society organisations protested against the project. Some of them are Eko kvarner and Franjevački svjetovni red. The sign reads "Oil or Tourism, that is the question?“<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/3.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Jovanka Spiric, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, vankajo(at)gmail.com</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>04/09/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>