Exxaro Leeuwpan Mining Project, South Africa

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">Exxaro Leeuwpan Colliery is expanding, threatening national water and food security by destroying wetlands and pans, and disrupting river flows. Activists claim that their advance into the Weltevreden Pan is illegal. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> The Leeuwpan Colliery is located on the Mpumalanga Highveld, less than five kilometres from the town of Delmas, South Africa, approximately 65 kilometres East of Johannesburg. The Highveld is rich in coal reserves and numerous coal mining companies are exploiting these reserves. This region has some of South Africa’s most productive arable land, and is of strategic importance for South Africa’s national food and water security. <br/><br/> The farm Weltevreden forms part of the Leeuwpan operation and Exxaro has obtained a valid mining right for this farm. They did not however secure a Water License for this property, which makes mining on the farm illegal. <br/><br/> The conflict started early in 2012, when a local farmer laid charges against Exxaro for mining illegally in a wetland referred to as the Weltevreden Pan, on the farm Weltevreden (Afrikaans for very satisfied). The Department of Water Affairs responded with a stop order, and various analyses of the case have been published in national media and NPO websites. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Exxaro Leeuwpan Mining Project, South Africa</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/south-africa">South Africa</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Mpumalanga</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Delmas</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Coal extraction and processing</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/coal'>Coal</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">Extraction is taking place at a rate of 3 million tonnes of coal per annum at Leeuwpan Colliery. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> Leeuwpan has a coal reserve base of about 143Mt and a resource of about 160Mt. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>4067</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>5210036000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>2,000 </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>24/03/2011</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/exxaro-resources-limited'>Exxaro Resources Limited</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/south-africa'><small>South Africa</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>National Assembly, Democratic Alliance</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/deutsche-gesellschaft-zur-zertifizierung-von-managementsystemen'>Deutsche Gesellschaft zur Zertifizierung von Managementsystemen <small>(DQS)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/germany'><small>Germany</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>media24. http://www.media24.com/, Beeld - a newspaper in the Media24 Group, one of the largest daily Afrikaans publications in South Africa. http://www.beeld.com/, Centre for Environmental rights http://cer.org.za/</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LOW (some local organising)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Desertification/Drought, Global warming, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Oil spills, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Mine tailing spills</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>Destruction of Natural Water Bodies</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Other Health impacts<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Occupational disease and accidents, Other environmental related diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area<br /> Court decision (victory for environmental justice)<br /> Negotiated alternative solution<br /> Application of existing regulations<br /> 0</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Stopping the operation, withdrawing from areas mined illegally, and reinstating the original inhabitants and economy. Criminal Prosecution</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Not Sure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Once the Water Tribunal is reinstated, the directive issued by the Department of Water Affairs will again become valid. The outcome remains uncertain until that time.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> National Environmental Management Act (NEMA): The Minister of Water Affairs has been negligent in not reappointing members of the Water Tribunal. Exxaro used this situation in legal manoeuvrings to disempower legal enforcement agencies that tried to stop them on the Weltevreden farm.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Exxaros compliance with a request for information under the Promotion of Access to Information Act (PAIA) was incomplete, but adequate to verify concerns.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Exxaro has shown gross non-compliance with the National Water Act (NWA). They are mining on the Weltevreden Farm without a water license. Specifically they are in violation of NWA regulations by practicing opencast activities inside the pan/wetland.<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Evaluating the impact of coal mining on agriculture in the Delmas, Ogies and Leandra districts: A focus on maize production. A report by BFAP, Compiled for the Maize Trust. Van der Burgh, Meyer, Coertzen reports/The impact of coal mining on agriculture -<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://bfap.co.za/documents/research" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Coal Mining on the Highveld and its implications for future water quality in the Vaal river system. McCarty, Pretorius<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.imwa.info/docs/imwa_2009/IMWA2009_McCarthy.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Analysis on the High Court Judgement by the International Law Office<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.bowman.co.za/Filebrowser/ContentDocuments/National_Water_Act_challenging_appeal_decisions.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Financial results and sustainability infgorstion for the 6-month period ended 30 June 30<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.exxaro.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Exxaro_Interims_AD_2013.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Parliamentary Reply to questions on Leeuwpan: 2115.pdf<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.dwa.gov.za/communications/Q&A/2012/NA" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> EXXARO LEEUWPAN MINE OPERATING LAWFULLY<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.exxaro.com/index.php/exxaro-leeuwpan-mine-operating-lawfully/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Exxaro’s statement on the importance of Wetlands<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.exxaro.com/?page_id=1898" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Exxaro’s statement on exploitation of wetlands<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.exxaro.com/?page_id=1899" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Exxaro’s statement on mining a portion of Leeuwpan, claiming the Weltevreden Pan is legitimately mined:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.exxaro.com/?page_id=1901" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Report on Leeuwpan by Elise Tempelhoff of Beeld.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://m.news24.com/beeld/Suid-Afrika/Nuus/Myn-woesteny-20120924" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Farmer lodges complaint against exxaro. Mail & Gaurdian<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://mg.co.za/article/2012-05-14-delmas-farmer-lodges-complaint-against-exxaro" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Exxaro Company Profile.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.exxaro.com/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Leeuwpan Profile.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.exxaro.com/?page_id=221" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Mining Weekly’s article on Leeuwpan’s Profile 2007.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.miningweekly.com/article/leeuwpan-coal-mine-2007-01-2" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Exxaro Justifies the legality of their operation<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.exxaro.com/?page_id=1901" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Court records of the High Court Appeal by Exxaro:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://cer.org.za/virtual-library/judgements/high-courts/exxaro-coal-v-minister-of-water-affairs-and-judicial-service-commission" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Natural Water Body threatened by large mining company<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.ejolt.org/2012/11/natural-water-body-threatened-by-large-mining-company/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Mining Weekly’s article on the merger of Eyesizwe and Kumba<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.miningweekly.com/article/kumba-eyesizwe-merger-to-be-approved-conditionally-2006-07-21" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Ways to kill a wetland<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://oxpeckers.org/2013/12/ways-to-kill-a-wetland/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Aint to Rest: Earthworks at Weltevreden Pan by Exxaro<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://franzfuls.files.wordpress.com/2012/11/aint-no-rest_earthworks-by-exxaro-at-weltevreden-pan-september-28-2012-_2949.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Franz Fuls</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>03/05/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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