Floriculture on Lake Naivasha, Kenya


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">Kenya is the third flowers’ exporting country of the world. From 2006 and on, associations, farmers committees and workers are carrying out campaigns and protest rallies to denounce the numerous rights violations committed by floriculture companies operating in Kenya. Near Lake Naivasha around 50,000 people work in floriculture and multinational companies are accused of violations of trade union rights, exploitation, lack of safety measures and damaging the health of local communities. Over 60% of the labor force are women, who have to leave their children under the care of old women. This precarious situation has led to an increase of sexual abuses on children. The more than 30 flower farms in the Lake Naivasha region have lowered the lake 10 feet more than what is healthy and since 2013 the Lake suffers strong droughts during the dry season. Moreover the companies own all the land surrounding the lake, restricting access to pastoralists such as the Masai and other users. Other traditional economic activities are under threat as well, such as fishing because of the increase of invasive fish species and the decrease of other fish stocks. The Naivasha Lake used to be renowned as a special bridwatching location, while today the overuse of pesticides and fertilizers by the floriculture compromise the Lake’s biodiversity. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Floriculture on Lake Naivasha, Kenya</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/kenya">Kenya</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Rift Valley Province</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Naivasha</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Invasive species<br /> Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp<br /> Other</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/cut-flowers'>Cut flowers</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The Lake covers a surface area of 115 km2. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> million roses a year. The companies ship more than 88 million tons of cut flowers a year, worth some $264 million The daily wage is around 7 Birr (around 0,60 euros). <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>400</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2001</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/sher-agencies'>Sher Agencies</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/kenya'><small>Kenya</small></a><br /><a href='/company/panda'>Panda</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/canada'><small>Canada</small></a><br /><a href='/company/karuturi-global-ltd'>Karuturi Global Ltd</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/india'><small>India</small></a> - <small> has acquired most of Shers holdings</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Kenyan Wildlife Service, Naivasha Water Resource Management Authority</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>KFC, FIDA, KLA, Lake Naivasha Riparian Association, ILEC - Japan, Council of Canadians</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Fishermen<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> Informal workers<br /> Local ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Pastoralists<br /> Social movements</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Food insecurity (crop damage), Waste overflow, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Malnutrition, Occupational disease and accidents, Deaths</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Specific impacts on women, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>There has been no changes.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>The assurance of workers rights and sustainable floriculture practices by filtering waste-water and by increasing the use of rainwater.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The floriculture companies continue their activity exactly the same. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Rose and Lavoro. Dal Kenya allItalia lincredibile viaggio dei fiori. Raitano, Pietro; Calvi, Cristiano. Ed. Terre De Mezzo. 2007.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Kenya: Minorities, IndigenousPeoples and Ethnic Diversity. Minority rights group international. Ed. Minority rights group international. 2005.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Consumatori del nord, lavoratori del sud: il successo di una campagna della societ civile contro la Del Monte in Kenya. Gesualdi, Francesco; Mutanga, Willy; Ouma, Stephen. Ed. EMI. 2003.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Unjust Enrichment. The making of Land Grabbing Millionaires. Autori Vari. Ed. Kenya National Commission on Human Rights. 2006.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Land Charter. Autori Vari. Ed. Kenya Land Alliance. 2007.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Nowhere to go Forced evictions in Mau Forest, Kenya. Autori Vari. Amnesty International. 2007.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Land Update-The Draft National Land Policy: a Step Towards Land Reforms. Autori Vari. Ed. Kenya Land Alliance. 2006.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Land Update- Relevance of the World Social Forum to the Kenyan Situation. Autori Vari. Ed. Kenya Land Alliance. 2007.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Land Update- Challenges Facing the Implementation of the Forest Act 2005. Autori Vari. Ed. Kenya Land Alliance. 2006.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Case for Womens Land Rights in the Proposed New Constitution. Autori Vari. Ed. Kenya Land Alliance. 2006.<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.peacelink.it/africanews/a/663.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Drained of life, Ogodo, O., Vidal, J., February 2007, The Guardian<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.theguardian.com/society/2007/feb/14/kenya.conservation" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Kenya – Lake Naivasha, WWF Involvement<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.wwf.org.uk/where_we_work/africa/kenya___lake_naivasha.cfm " target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Price of Kenyan Roses and the tragedy of Lake Naivasha, 2009, MakeWealthHistory<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://makewealthhistory.org/2009/02/13/the-price-of-kenyan-roses-and-the-tragedy-of-lake-naivasha/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>View on the Naivasha Lake</strong> makewealthhistory.org<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/naivasha_lake_bis.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Woman worker in a flowers' greenhouse</strong> On the banks of the Lake Naivasha, wwf.panda.org<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/women_in_floriculture_greenhouse.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Lucie Greyl</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>30/10/2015</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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