Fracking Araba - ENARA, Spain

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">On 24/10/2006, the Company Hydrocarbons of Euskadi, SA (SHESA) was granted with a licence for study the feasibility of a proposed fracking for a period of six years through the so-called Enara Licence (BOE 22/12/2005). SHESA is a company of the Basque Energy Organisation (EVE) within the Department of Industry of the Basque Government. The license involves territories in Euskadi and Castilla y León, affecting a total of 140,000 hectares. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> This license is effective until 19/06/2014, but explorations have not started so far, in 2013. <br/><br/> In October 2011, after five years of technical studies, the former Basque President Patxi Lopez, during a visit in Texas, announced the existence of large reserves of shale gas in Araba. He also announced the creation of a consortium between the EVE (SHESA, 44%) and other companies with experience in shale gas extraction: Heyco Energy Group companies (36%) and Cambria Europe Inc. (a subsidiary of True Oil, 20%). The consortium would invest 50 million to study the feasibility of the project, and testing would begin in 2012 in 75,852 ha located in Subijana (Vitoria-Gasteiz, Araba, Spain). <br/><br/> Out of 9 exploration-license applications within the ENARA licence, only two (ENARA 16.A, ENARA 16.B, both in Subijana) have been accepted. In both cases, exploratory wells (10/06/2013) have been dug to perform seismic tests to create a map of conventional hydrocarbon location. In principle, they will not be used for fracking exploration and exploitation. However, there is no a guarantee that the research being done under the umbrella of the search for conventional resources will not be used afterwards for extraction of unconventional hydrocarbons. <br/><br/> Numerous associations, owners and social movements have organised themselves against the project through the creation of the 'Frackingezaraba' platform. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Fracking Araba - ENARA, Spain</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/spain">Spain</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Vitoria-Gasteiz (Araba/Alaba)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Subijana</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Shale gas fracking<br /> Pollution related to transport (spills, dust, emissions)<br /> Water access rights and entitlements</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/natural-gas'>Natural Gas</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The estimate for Araba encompasses an area of more than 140,000 ha. The project aims to obtain 180 BCM (BCM = one billion m3) throught 2600-3000 wells. They would consume an estimate of 27 million to 113 million m3 of water. The project woudl generate from 4 million to 68 million m3 of waste water containing additives (which counts for ca 2% of the volume). The project planning also entails 75 million truck trips for gas transportation. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> The two accepted licences include the following details: The drilling will reach an estimated depth of 4864 meters, crossing the limestones of the Subijana aquifer between 149 and 749 meters. <br/><br/> During the drilling phase, the volume of water required is estimated at 3,300 m3, the consumption of which during a period of over seventy-six days. Once the well is drilled, the stimulation of potential gas reservoirs may require an additional volume of 35,000 m3, The stimulation process may last approximately forty days. <br/><br/> The water supply will be carried out from the Zalla river catchment. This river is included in a Special Areas for the Protection for the Bird Avión zapador (Riparia ripariai) and preferential distribution area for the European Mink (Mustela lutreola). <br/><br/> The project will also involve civil works in the drilling sites, through the setting of well pad with an approximate area of 100 × 100 m, partially covered by a concrete slab where the drilling platform will be supported. A 180-m length pathway to access the platform from the road A-3603 will be opened. <br/><br/> A waterproofed pool (15 × 10 × 2 meters) will be excavated, as well as another pool (also waterproofed) for the managent of the sludge (40 × 10 × 2.5 meters) next to the platform. A fiberglass septic tank, with capacity of 9000 liters) will be installed and also two sinks built for possible spills. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>140000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>50000000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>22/12/2005</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/sociedad-de-hidrocarburos-de-euskadi-sa'>Sociedad de Hidrocarburos de Euskadi, S.A. <small>(SHESA)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/spain'><small>Spain</small></a><br /><a href='/company/basque-energy-organitation'>Basque Energy Organitation <small>(EVE)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/spain'><small>Spain</small></a><br /><a href='/company/heyco-energy-group-companies'>Heyco Energy Group companies</a><br /><a href='/company/cambria-europe-inc-true-oil'>Cambria Europe Inc. True Oil</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a><br /><a href='/company/spanish-association-of-researchers-and-exploitative-companies-oil'>Spanish Association of Researchers and exploitative Companies Oil <small>(ACIEP)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/spain'><small>Spain</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Industry of the Basque Government, Basque President, Basc Goverment, Basque government and Diputación Foral, Municipality of Vitoria-Gasteiz. Spanish central administration.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Plataforma Fracking EZ Araba: http://frackingezaraba.org/about/, There was a manifesto signed by different individuals, political entities, conservation associations and social movements., Acampada Gasteiz, Asociación Visón Europeo, ACOA-AKE, Aralar, Bildu, CCOO, Deshazkundea-Gasteiz, Eguzki, Ekologistak Martxan, ELA, EQUO, Gaden, Grupo Ecologista Gaia, Hala Bedi Irratia, Inmersiones, Izate, Izquierda Unida – Ezker Anitza, LAB, Mendialdetik, STEE-EILAS, UAGA, UGT, SEO/BirdLife, BIZILUR-Lankidetzarako eta Herrien Garapenerako Erakundea, Herriarte/Entrepueblos, SAGARRAK, Gernikako Ekologi Lan-Taldea, LOS VERDES – GRUPO VERDE, Bizkaiko emakume asanblada, KEM-MOC Bilbao, Asociación Fotografía y Biodiversidad, ESK, Greenpeace, Asociación Ikusbide, Euskalerriko Eskautak Araba, Las Trans, ACOVI, AEREN, Errotako gazte asanblada, Azken kolpe kontrakultura elkartea, UPyD, Asociación Otsogorrigaina Mendi Elkartea, Bionekazaritza, Itaya Gazte Asanblada.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Social movements<br /> Trade unions<br /> Wastepickers, recyclers<br /> Recreational users<br /> Local scientists/professionals<br /> Environtalist/conservation organisations</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of alternative proposals<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches<br /> Arguments for the rights of mother nature<br /> Preparation of manifesto, Magazine, blog and web outreach, courses and workshops, demonstrations.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Fires, Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Oil spills, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Mine tailing spills<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Noise pollution, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>The potential impact has been assessed according to the effects in other locations (U.S., France, Canada, Great Britain, Holland, Poland, South Africa, Bulgaria)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Accidents, Occupational disease and accidents, Other environmental related diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>Up to 650 different additives, of which not all are known. The Tyndall reveals that there toxic additives, carcinogenic and mutagenic products, plus potential radioactive and Heavy metals, that could bring diseases and serious health problems (cancer, reproductive problems, ...<br/><br/>* potential impact, according to other locations (U.S., France, Canada, Great Britain, Holland, Poland, South Africa, Bulgaria)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>* potential impact, according to other locations (U.S., France, Canada, Great Britain, Holland, Poland, South Africa, Bulgaria)</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Proposed (exploration phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Institutional changes<br /> Court decision (victory for environmental justice)<br /> New legislation<br /> Strengthening of participation<br /> Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>The committment to a sustainable energy model, efficient and renewable.<br/><br/>http://frackingezaraba.org/manifiesto/</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Not Sure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The conflict is still latent. The resistance has just begun, so it is still early to assess the degree of success in terms of environmental justice.<br/><br/>What is certain is that, in chase the project is carried out the project, the impacts will be clearly unevenly distributed, while benefits will remain in the hands of a few private companies. <br/><br/>The distribution of impacts (inc. environmental costs) will affect more to people who live closer to the extraction zone, but could also affect people from more remote areas, although the range is still unknown. Moreover, endangered ecosystems and resources for future generations would be seriously threatened. <br/><br/>The greatest danger occurs in the ground water systems. In this respect, the conflict is a matter of environmental justice and even water justice, since the biggest impacts will affect the water cycle. For a broader recognition of pluralistic values in the area, an effective participation would be necessary, together with a governmental turnaround in energy planning. These could involve sustainable and efficient alternatives, such as wind or solar.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Law 34/1998, of October 7, the hydrocarbon sector, mandating the exploration, transportation, distribution and marketing of oil and gas.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Violation of the precautionary principle of the treaty establishing the EU 174.2. <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> It fulfills the law of environmental impact assessment (RDL 11/01/2008). <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> It violates the law of natural heritage and biodiversity (24/2007).<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> It violates the water law (2006) and Water Framework Directive (2000) of the EU.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Other Laws:<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Law 22/2011 ground.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Law 12/2007, dated 2 July, amending Law 34/1998, of October 7, the hydrocarbon sector.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Directive 2003/55/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 June 2003 concerning common rules for the internal market in natural gas.<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Tyndal Inform -Uni. Oxford and Cambrige. ()<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://tyndallreport.com/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?type=REPORT&reference=A7-2011-0055&language=EN" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://fracking.velaw.com/shale-development-in-france/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The U.S. EPA, in 2010 anunción analyze research that negative impacts of fracking on water quality and public health.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.epa.gov/research/waterscience/water-hydraulicfracturing.htm" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Memory ENARA<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.slideshare.net/Frackingezaraba/memoria-ambiental-enara7" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Info SHESA<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.shesa.es/in/shesa.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> European Parliament Report 2011.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> French law banning hydraulic fracturing (11/05/2011).<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Some states like NY, Maryland and New Jersey have banned it.<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://frackingnocmym.wordpress.com/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.what-is-fracking.com/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydraulic_fracturing" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Fractura Hidraulica NO ()<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.fracturahidraulicano.info/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://frackingezaraba.org/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://goo.gl/maps/UuhM5" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.nuevomodeloenergetico.org/pgs2/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.fracturahidraulicano.info/documentos.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://frackingezbizkaia.org/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.kuartangofrackingez.org/index.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://navarraantifracking.blogspot.com.es/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://proyectourraca.wordpress.com/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.shalegasespana.es/es/index.php/recursos/shale-gas-en-espana/pais-vasco" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.eve.es/index.aspx" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.shesa.es" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.shalegasespana.es/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://aciep.com/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> (Fracking ez Araba)<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://youtu.be/nDjCsAlgSKc" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://youtu.be/Xeo-gEkbq6k" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://youtu.be/qcPidDATJKk" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Comments</td><td>Petición dirigida al Congreso de los Diputados en Change, STOP FRACKING en España.<br/><br/>http://www.change.org/es/peticiones/al-congreso-de-los-diputados-stop-fracking-en-españa#description</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Lucia Peña Armijo</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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