Gas Pipelines Urucu-Coari-Manaus & Urucu-Porto Velho - Petrobras, Brazil

The 670km long pipeline between Urucu and Manaus fuels the industrialization of the Amazon and its transformation into a field for fossil fuels drilling, while the pipeline from Urucu to Porto Velho pushes further the rainforest frontier.


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">To end oil industry dependence on river transportation, the Brazilian company Petrobras planned the construction of a natural gas pipeline from Urucu to Manaus in the Amazonas State, at the heart of the rainforest. The first route was completed in 1998 between Urucu and Coari. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">Later on, Petrobras announced its willingness to construct the second layout from Coari to Manaus but also to connect Urucu to Porto Velho, in the Rondonia State, also through a new natural gas pipeline. <br/><br/>It is in 2002 when local indigenous communities, fishermen, environmental associations and civil society organizations raised their voices, opposing the two pipeline projects. All these groups shared common concerns about a settlers’ invasion, the danger of deforestation as well as soil and water contamination. Social opposition was also triggered by the experiences suffered in Coari, whose inhabitants were facing the severe impacts of the first pipeline layout, such as the increase of prostitution (even children’s prostitution), drugs’ use and infectious diseases’ spread [1 & 2].<br/><br/>Petrobras went on with its project and finalized the whole pipeline from Urucu to Manaus by the end of 2009. Even after the finalization of the pipeline, social opposition remained vivid due to the ongoing planning for the pipeline between Urucu and Porto Velho and also the gas pipeline between Jurua and Urucu. While the pipeline between Jurua and Urucu is still pending, the pipeline from Urucu to Porto Velho has been constructed, after a delay provoked by the 14 recommendations expressed by the Federal Public Ministry to Petrobras [3]. <br/><br/>Numerous indigenous communities are affected by this second pipeline such as the Palmari, the Apuriná, the Katukina, the Juma, and the Cunirá Takutina peoples as well as the isolated people from Jacareúb. Amazon Watch and Friends of the Earth Brazil pointed out critics to the public hearings carried out by Petrobras in 2002, critics expressed by the indigenous communities themselves [4]. <br/><br/>This pipeline construction was justified by the need to provide energy to produce electricity in Manaus, and other municipalities. Manaus is the capital of the Amazonas State. Located in the middle of the rainforest, the state's capital records 2 million inhabitants. the city doubled its population in the 2000's decade. Manaus fast and growing industrialization is at the origin of this expansion.<br/><br/>The pipeline project is to be understood as part of a broader context where the rainforest fossil fuels' drilling is increasing. This trend was highly feared by environmentalists opposing the pipeline before its construction. What's more, by pushing further the rainforest frontier, the natural resources are made available for ranchers, settlers, and/or illegal miners and loggers. The whole State, at the very heart of the rainforest, is subject to oil and gas fields explorations/exploitations and electricity plants. As for instance, a gas plant was built in Urucu (financed by JEMIX) and an environmental impact assessment was carried out for the construction of a new gas pipeline connecting the isolated gas field of Jurua to Urucu. Now connected by the pipeline, Urucu provides enough sources of energy to Manaus. Jurua's gas would be sent to Porto Velho [5]. Indeed, Urucu was also connected to Porto Velho by another new 522.2km long pipeline started in 2010, connecting the Amazonas and Rondonia States.<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Gas Pipelines Urucu-Coari-Manaus & Urucu-Porto Velho - Petrobras, Brazil</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/brazil">Brazil</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>State of Amazonas and State of Rondonia</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>from Manaus to Porto Velho</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>MEDIUM regional level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Oil and gas exploration and extraction<br /> Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/natural-gas'>Natural Gas</a><br /><a href='/commodity/crude-oil'>Crude oil</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The Urucu-Manaus natural gas pipeline, built by the Brazilian company Petrobras was 670 km (416 miles) long, and was inaugurated on November 26th, 2009. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">The first piece of the pipeline, between Urucu and Coari, totalizing 280 km, was built in 1998, and was contracted to the OAS/Etesco Consortium. The two following stages started in 2004 and connected Coari to Anamã (196 km long); and then Anamã to Manaus, contracted to the Camargo Correa/Skanska Consortium. <br/><br/>Initially, the pipeline would transport 4,7 million cubic metres of natural gas per day. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Unknown</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2002</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/petrobras'>Petrobras</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/brazil'><small>Brazil</small></a><br /><a href='/company/transpetro'>Transpetro </a> from <a href='/country-of-company/brazil'><small>Brazil</small></a> - <small>operates the pipeline since it is has been finalized</small><br /><a href='/company/transportadora-urucu-manaus'>Transportadora Urucu-Manaus</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/brazil'><small>Brazil</small></a><br /><a href='/company/el-paso-energy-international'>El Paso Energy International </a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a> - <small>granted a license for the construction of Urucu / Porto Velho pipeline</small><br /><a href='/company/skanska-consortium'>Skanska</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/sweden'><small>Sweden</small></a> - <small>contracted to build the pipeline from Anam to Manaus</small><br /><a href='/company/termogas'>Termogas</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/italy'><small>Italy</small></a> - <small>involved in the Urucu / Porto Velho pipeline</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Both pipelines are part of the Federal Government ongoing Brazil Advances program, financed by the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES). Amazonas' State Federal Government, IBAMA: Brazilian Environmental Agency, Federal Public Ministry of Brazil</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/banco-nacional-de-desenvolvimento-economico-e-social'>Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social <small>(BNDES)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/brazil'><small>Brazil</small></a><br /><a href='/institution/jexim-bank'>Jexim Bank</a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/japan'><small>Japan</small></a> - <small>financing a gas plant in Urucu</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Amigos da Terra: Brasil, CPT (Comisso Pastoral da Terra): Brasil, Indigenous Organisations of the Alto Madeira Communities, Amazon Watch, Pastoral Land Commission (CPT) - Brazil</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Farmers<br /> Social movements<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> Informal workers<br /> Local ejos<br /> Pastoralists<br /> Fishermen<br /> Trade unions<br /> Industrial workers<br /> International ejos<br /> Indigenous communities of Palmari, the Apuriná, the Katukina, the Juma, and the Cunirá Takutina peoples as well as the isolated people from Jacareúb</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Blockades<br /> Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)<br /> Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Infectious diseases, Other Health impacts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>IADS virus, drugs' consumption, domestic violence</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Specific impacts on women, Increase in violence and crime, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..)<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Land dispossession, Other socio-economic impacts</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Compensation<br /> Criminalization of activists<br /> Migration/displacement<br /> Under negotiation<br /> Violent targeting of activists<br /> Application of existing regulations</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Local residents, fishermen, environmental groups and civil society organizations opposed this project. However, in September 2005 the project was approved and in June 2006 the pipeline construction began and the pipeline was opened in 2009.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Geopolitica de los recursos naturales y acuerdos comerciales en sudamerica, Fobomade, 2005.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Asuntos Indigenas 2-3/2006 Pueblos Indgenas e Hidrocarburos, Iwgia, 2006.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.iwgia.org/publications/search-pubs?publication_id=380" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Petrobras: Integracin o explotacin?, FASE, 2005.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.ifch.unicamp.br/profseva/livroFASE_petrob_integr_explo_ASul.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Brazil Energy Data, Statistics and Analysis - Oil, Gas, Electricity, Coal, Oil Watch Sudamerica, January 2011<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.oilwatchsudamerica.org/doc/eia_brasil.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> New Pipelines Threaten Intact Amazon Rainforests in Brazil The Dark Side of President Cardoso ’s “Advance Brazil Plan”: Carving Energy Grids in the Heart of the Brazilian Amazon, Amazon Watch Report, 2001<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://amazonwatch.org/news/2001/0601-new-pipelines-threaten-intact-amazon-rainforests-in-brazil" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Amazone Watch Annual Report, 2002<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://amazonwatch.org/assets/files/aw_annual_report_2002.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [1] Excavando hacia el desastre - el gasoducto de Urucu en Brasil hace caso omiso de la historia, Informe de Amigos de la Tierra Internacional, 2002<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.foei.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/clashes_corporate_giantsesp.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [2] Petroleo en Brasil, 2001, Oilwatch<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.oilwatch.org/doc/paises/brasil/brasil2001esp.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [3] Urucu-Porto Velho Gas Pipeline<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://idbdocs.iadb.org/wsdocs/getdocument.aspx?docnum=381935" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [4] Brasil: el Gas de Urucu en Boletin de Red Oilwatch : RESISTENCIA A GASODUCTOS, 10/2002<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.oilwatch.org/doc/boletin/bole33es.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> O banco nacional do desenvolvimento<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.bndes.gov.br/SiteBNDES/bndes/bndes_pt" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Amigos da Terra – Amazônia Brasileira<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://amazonia.org.br/amigosdaterra/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Comissão Pastoral da Terra<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.cptnacional.org.br/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Gasoduto Urucu-Coari-Manaus, Petrobras (Portuguese)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.petrobras.com.br/pt/nossas-atividades/principais-operacoes/gasodutos/urucu-coari-manaus.htm" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> BRAZIL: License for Urucu-Porto Velho gas pipeline suspended by judge, Cultural Survival<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.culturalsurvival.org/news/brazil-license-urucu-porto-velho-gas-pipeline-suspended-judge" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Uruco-Porto Velho pipeline: oil in Amazon blood, Salva le foreste, 29/06/2010<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.salvaleforeste.it/en/blog/72-news-en/eco-justice/2109-uruco-porto-velho-pipeline-oil-in-amazon-blood.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [5] New gas pipeline prompts fears for Amazon rainforest, D. Carrington, The Guardian, 05/08/2010<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2010/aug/05/gas-pipeline-amazon-rainforest" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Urucu-Manaus Gas Pipeline, Skanska<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://group.skanska.com/projects/57161/Urucu-Manaus-Gas-Pipeline" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Amigos da terra promove audiência pública sobre gasoduto, Povos indigenas no Brasil, 02/2002<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://pib.socioambiental.org/es/noticias?id=4033" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Map showing the pipelines existing in Brasil (and Latin-America)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.geografiainfo.es/tuberias/mapa_tuberias_argentina_bolivia_brasil_chile_ecuador_peru_uruguay.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Arara pole, on the the Urucu oilfield</strong> Source: The Guardian, Antonio Scorza/AFP<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/urucu_pipeline.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Urucu-Manaus pipeline cutting across the Amazon rainforest</strong> Democracia & Politica Blogspot<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/urucu_pipeline_3.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Lucie Greyl & Camila Rolando Mazzuca</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>21/01/2016</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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