Gas Pipelines Urucu-Coari-Manaus & Urucu-Porto Velho - Petrobras, Brazil

The 670km long pipeline between Urucu and Manaus fuels the industrialization of the Amazon and its transformation into a field for fossil fuels drilling, while the pipeline from Urucu to Porto Velho pushes further the rainforest frontier.


Description

To end oil industry dependence on river transportation, the Brazilian company Petrobras planned the construction of a natural gas pipeline from Urucu to Manaus in the Amazonas State, at the heart of the rainforest. The first route was completed in 1998 between Urucu and Coari.

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Basic Data
NameGas Pipelines Urucu-Coari-Manaus & Urucu-Porto Velho - Petrobras, Brazil
CountryBrazil
ProvinceState of Amazonas and State of Rondonia
Sitefrom Manaus to Porto Velho
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Oil and gas exploration and extraction
Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Specific CommoditiesNatural Gas
Crude oil
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe Urucu-Manaus natural gas pipeline, built by the Brazilian company Petrobras was 670 km (416 miles) long, and was inaugurated on November 26th, 2009.

The first piece of the pipeline, between Urucu and Coari, totalizing 280 km, was built in 1998, and was contracted to the OAS/Etesco Consortium. The two following stages started in 2004 and connected Coari to Anamã (196 km long); and then Anamã to Manaus, contracted to the Camargo Correa/Skanska Consortium.

Initially, the pipeline would transport 4,7 million cubic metres of natural gas per day.
Type of PopulationUnknown
Start Date2002
Company Names or State Enterprises Petróleo Brasileiro S.A (PETROBRAS) from Brazil
Transpetro from Brazil - operates the pipeline since it is has been finalized
Transportadora Urucu-Manaus from Brazil
El Paso Energy International from United States of America - granted a license for the construction of Urucu / Porto Velho pipeline
Skanska from Sweden - contracted to build the pipeline from Anam to Manaus
Termogas from Italy - involved in the Urucu / Porto Velho pipeline
Relevant government actorsBoth pipelines are part of the Federal Government ongoing Brazil Advances program, financed by the Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES). Amazonas' State Federal Government, IBAMA: Brazilian Environmental Agency, Federal Public Ministry of Brazil
International and Financial InstitutionsBanco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico e Social (BNDES) from Brazil
Jexim Bank from Japan - financing a gas plant in Urucu
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersAmigos da Terra: Brasil, CPT (Comisso Pastoral da Terra): Brasil, Indigenous Organisations of the Alto Madeira Communities, Amazon Watch, Pastoral Land Commission (CPT) - Brazil
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingNeighbours/citizens/communities
Farmers
Social movements
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Informal workers
Local ejos
Pastoralists
Fishermen
Trade unions
Industrial workers
International ejos
Indigenous communities of Palmari, the Apuriná, the Katukina, the Juma, and the Cunirá Takutina peoples as well as the isolated people from Jacareúb
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Objections to the EIA
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Infectious diseases, Other Health impacts
OtherIADS virus, drugs' consumption, domestic violence
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Loss of landscape/sense of place, Specific impacts on women, Increase in violence and crime, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..)
Potential: Land dispossession, Other socio-economic impacts
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Criminalization of activists
Migration/displacement
Under negotiation
Violent targeting of activists
Application of existing regulations
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.Local residents, fishermen, environmental groups and civil society organizations opposed this project. However, in September 2005 the project was approved and in June 2006 the pipeline construction began and the pipeline was opened in 2009.
Sources and Materials
References

Geopolitica de los recursos naturales y acuerdos comerciales en sudamerica, Fobomade, 2005.

Asuntos Indigenas 2-3/2006 Pueblos Indgenas e Hidrocarburos, Iwgia, 2006.
[click to view]

Petrobras: Integracin o explotacin?, FASE, 2005.
[click to view]

Brazil Energy Data, Statistics and Analysis - Oil, Gas, Electricity, Coal, Oil Watch Sudamerica, January 2011
[click to view]

New Pipelines Threaten Intact Amazon Rainforests in Brazil The Dark Side of President Cardoso ’s “Advance Brazil Plan”: Carving Energy Grids in the Heart of the Brazilian Amazon, Amazon Watch Report, 2001
[click to view]

Amazone Watch Annual Report, 2002
[click to view]

[1] Excavando hacia el desastre - el gasoducto de Urucu en Brasil hace caso omiso de la historia, Informe de Amigos de la Tierra Internacional, 2002
[click to view]

[2] Petroleo en Brasil, 2001, Oilwatch
[click to view]

[3] Urucu-Porto Velho Gas Pipeline
[click to view]

[4] Brasil: el Gas de Urucu en Boletin de Red Oilwatch : RESISTENCIA A GASODUCTOS, 10/2002
[click to view]

Links

O banco nacional do desenvolvimento
[click to view]

Amigos da Terra – Amazônia Brasileira
[click to view]

Comissão Pastoral da Terra
[click to view]

Gasoduto Urucu-Coari-Manaus, Petrobras (Portuguese)
[click to view]

BRAZIL: License for Urucu-Porto Velho gas pipeline suspended by judge, Cultural Survival
[click to view]

Uruco-Porto Velho pipeline: oil in Amazon blood, Salva le foreste, 29/06/2010
[click to view]

[5] New gas pipeline prompts fears for Amazon rainforest, D. Carrington, The Guardian, 05/08/2010
[click to view]

Urucu-Manaus Gas Pipeline, Skanska
[click to view]

Amigos da terra promove audiência pública sobre gasoduto, Povos indigenas no Brasil, 02/2002
[click to view]

Media Links

Map showing the pipelines existing in Brasil (and Latin-America)
[click to view]

Other Documents

Arara pole, on the the Urucu oilfield Source: The Guardian, Antonio Scorza/AFP
[click to view]

Urucu-Manaus pipeline cutting across the Amazon rainforest Democracia & Politica Blogspot
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorLucie Greyl & Camila Rolando Mazzuca
Last update21/01/2016
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