PPT case: Glencore and Prodeco coal mining, Colombia

Blatant violation of the American Convention of Human Rights, of the Colombian Constitution, of the Covenant of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, as well as of the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights.


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">(Español, abajo) - Summary of the conflict</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">The accused company is the Anglo-Swiss Glencore PLC, the tenth biggest corporation in the world, which is dedicated to the extraction and commerce of metals and other energetic and agricultural products. In Colombia, through its subsidiary PRODECO and interest in FENOCO, Glencore is responsible of constantly breaking the legal and contractual obligations with regard to mitigation, prevention and compensation of environmental impacts derived from its activities, as well as of several fiscal wrongdoings. Moreover, as a consequence of extractive activities, the quality of life of local communities has been drastically affected, especially with regard to social conflicts, both with the public authorities and the mining enterprise. The militarization of the area, the demographic distortions and the restrictions to the use of land, air and water to the point of causing several forced displacements, have all contributed to an environment of high insecurity. The foregoing is a blatant violation of the American Convention of Human Rights, of the Colombian Constitution, of the Covenant of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, as well as of the Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights.<br/><br/>History of the conflict<br/><br/>Glencore PLC, as it was named after the merging of Glencore International PLC and Xstrata PLC in 2013, acts in Colombia through its subsidiary Prodeco, who is in charge of the operations of exploration, exploitation, transport and export of minerals, in particular thermal and metallurgical coal. The first operations in which Glencore took part took place on 1995, through the acquisition of several national enterprises with projects in the Colombian department of Cesar. From the beginning the acquisitions were controversial, since there were claims that these showed irregularities and were sold at much lower prices than the market value. <br/><br/>Throughout the years, the negative impact of the operations of Glencore in Colombia can be divided in three areas: fiscal impact, environmental impact and social responsibility. 1) Glencore never notified the acquisition of the six national companies with which it operated in the country since 1995, thus liberating the parent company from responsibilities and offering fiscal advantages. In 2011, the transnational was compelled to declare the existence of the group and fined for 226 thousand dollars, quantity which has never been paid. 2) In addition, Glencore has infringed their legal and contractual obligations regarding mitigation, prevention and compensation for the environmental impacts, being condemned in 2009 to pay a fine of 700 thousand dollars (1). Some of the projects have entailed the improper exploitation of the forest and hydric resources, the contamination and manipulation of the rivers (particularly the Calenturitas river) or the non-authorized perforation of the soils and subsoils, affecting thus the resources (plants, animals and water) on which the population depends. 3) Lastly, the Social Management Plans have been thoroughly disregarded and the life quality of the inhabitants has subsequently dropped. The impacts on it have taken several forms: increased health risk due to the increase of particulate matter; economic dependency on mining in detriment of other traditional productive activities; loss of income sources and means of livelihood; as well as the forced displacement of entire populations, among others. Particularly dangerous is the militarization of the areas in which the transnational operates, which has caused clashes between the resistance and the public forces that we will explain later.<br/><br/>The role of the Architecture of Impunity<br/><br/>Glencore PLC is one of the largest companies in the world and thus has not only vast economic resources but also an enormous power influence. The link between company and the government of Colombia has raised controversy on several occasions. The excessive legislative flexibility with mining companies like Glencore has been one of the most recurrent complaints, as it has been estimated that the retribution the State gets from the enormous mining industry is only a 22 % of the total (the lowest percentage in Latinamerica), keeping the TNC the remaining 78 %. The mining code of Colombia, modified in 2001, establishes, for instance, the expropriation of public territories for the development of mining activity, as this is considered a “public utility”. This hampers the possibility for local authorities to paralyze certain projects and does not establish as a requisite the previous consultation of peasant affected communities. In addition to the mining reforms, other tax reforms facilitate the entrance and development of extractive industries, as well as the approval of bilateral trade agreement treaties that benefit corporations such as Glencore.<br/><br/>The other great conflict in which the Colombian government is involved is the militarization of the areas in which the TNC’s subsidiaries operate. The presences of State’s forces in Cesar has complicated the resistance and caused several clashes. In 2007, for instance, after a strike by the inhabitants of Jagua de Ibirico, the police responded to a peaceful protest with gas, water and gunshots, causing the death of one of the participants and several injuries. In addition to this state militarization against the protest, the strong presence of the armed internal conflict perceived in the country also adds the existence of paramilitary groups that contribute to an environment of insecurity and intimidation among those affected. <br/><br/>Attempts of access to justice<br/><br/>The affected communities mainly demand: (i) that they a process to recognize their rights is guaranteed; (ii) that the impacts of the activities are recognized; (iii) that mining in their territory is not extended and thus that the economic model is diversified; and (iv) more information and transparency to understand the extent of the impacts and the chain of responsibility. <br/><br/>Glencore has been sued on a national level on several instances, which resulted in the company being fined for tax evasion and environmental crimes. However, the majority of the cases originating from civil society complaints are usually filed immediately. The difficult access to local justice is one of the main obstacles of the campaign. Other strategies are have been the independent investigation of the impacts of the company’s activities, the promotion of their demands in national and international media and the exchange of information with other affected communities in Colombia. <br/><br/>What Justice could do: a say from the PPT<br/><br/>In a hearing that was held in Geneva in June 2014, the Permanent People’s Tribunal (PPT) listened to the testimony of members of the Centro de Estudios para la Justicia Social “Tierra Digna”. Considering the evidence brought before the judges by these witnesses, the Tribunal recognized the actions of the transnational corporation as another example of violations of human and people rights. In line with its full judgement of Madrid, in May 2010, and just a few months before the session that was held in Mexico in December 2014, the PPT underlined once again how transnational corporations, including Glencore, systematically violate human and peoples’ rights to their own profit. In the same line, the PPT recognized in this widespread practice the current shortcoming of international law, namely the impossibility of accessing justice and obtaining a remedy that is increasingly becoming an unbearable burden for affected communities, as well as for the laws that are supposed to give them shelter. In the same spirit, the PPT acknowledged the necessity to improve international legislation, including through a binding treaty on transnational corporations, and a Peoples’ treaty, in order to hold transnational corporations accountable for their actions.<br/><br/>Español - Resumen del conflicto<br/><br/>La empresa acusada es la suizo-británica Glencore PLC, la décima empresa más grande del mundo, dedicada a la extracción y comercio de metales y de productos energéticos y agrícolas. En Colombia, a través de su subsidiaria PRODECO y de la participación en FENOCO, Glencore es responsable de incumplir de forma constante las obligaciones legales y contractuales relativas a la mitigación, prevención y compensación por los impactos ambientales derivados de sus actividades, además de varios delitos tributarios. Además, debido a la actividad extractiva, la calidad de vida de las comunidades locales se ha visto fuertemente afectada, especialmente en lo que atañe a conflictos sociales, tanto con la autoridad pública como con la empresa minera. La militarización de la zona, las distorsiones demográficas y las restricciones al uso de la tierra, del aire y del agua, hasta el punto de causar desplazamientos forzados por la contaminación, han creado un clima de alta inseguridad. Lo anterior constituye una violación de la Convención Americana de los Derechos Humanos, de la Constitución Colombiana, del Pacto de Derechos Económicos, Sociales y Culturales, como asimismo de los Principios Rectores del Relator de Empresas y Derechos Humanos.<br/><br/>Historia del conflicto<br/><br/>Glencore PLC, formada tras la unión de Glencore International PLC y Xstrata PLC en 2013, actúa en Colombia a través de su filial Prodeco, quien lleva a cabo operaciones de exploración, explotación, transporte y exportación de minerales, en particular carbón térmico y metalúrgico. Las primeras operaciones en las que Glencore tomó parte se remontan a 1995, a través de la compra de diferentes empresas nacionales con proyectos en los departamentos colombianos de Cesar y Guajiar. Desde el comienzo las adquisiciones levantaron críticas, pues se ha denunciado que éstas presentaron irregularidades y se vendieron a precios muy inferiores al valor real. <br/><br/>A lo largo de estos años, el impacto negativo de las operaciones de Glencore en Colombia se puede dividir en tres áreas: impactos fiscales, medio ambiente y responsabilidad social. 1) Glencore nunca notificó la adquisición de las seis empresas nacionales con las que operaba en el país desde 1995, lo que liberaba a la empresa matriz de responsabilidades y ofrecía ventajas fiscales. En 2011, la transnacional fue exigida a declarar la existencia del grupo empresarial y multada por 226 mil dólares, cantidad que nunca ha sido pagada. 2) A su vez, Glencore ha incumplido sus obligaciones legales y contractuales respecto a la mitigación, prevención y compensación de los impactos ambientales, siendo condenada en 2009 a pagar por ello una multa de 700 mil dólares (1). Algunos de los proyectos han supuesto el aprovechamiento indebido de recursos forestales e hídricos, la contaminación y manipulación de los ríos (en particular el río Calenturitas) o la perforación no autorizada de suelos y subsuelos, afectando todo esto a los recursos vegetales, animales e hídricos de los que depende la población. 3) Por último, los Planes de Gestión Social han sido reiteradamente incumplidos y la calidad de vida de los habitantes se ha visto afectada. Los impactos en ésta se han dado de varias formas: deterioro en la salud por el aumento de concentraciones de material particulado; dependencia económica de la minería en detrimento de otras actividades productivas tradicionales; pérdidas de fuentes de ingreso y de medios de subsistencia; así como el desplazamiento forzado de poblaciones enteras, entre otros. <br/><br/>Particularmente peligrosa es la militarización de las zonas en las que opera la transnacional, que ha causado enfrentamientos entre la resistencia y las fuerzas públicas que detallaremos más adelante. <br/><br/>El papel de la Arquitectura de la Impunidad<br/><br/>Glencore PLC es una de las empresas más grandes del mundo y por tanto cuenta no solo con vastísimos recursos económicos sino también con una enorme influencia de poder. La vinculación entre la empresa y el gobierno de Colombia ha levantado sospechas en varias ocasiones. La excesiva flexibilidad legislativa para las mineras como Glencore ha sido una de las críticas más sonadas, pues se calcula que la retribución que recibe el Estado de la enorme industria minera es tan solo del 22 % (la tasa más baja de Latinoamérica), quedándose la transnacional con el 78% restante. El código minero de Colombia, modificado en 2001, establece, por ejemplo, la expropiación de territorios públicos para el desarrollo de la actividad minera, pues ésta se considera de “utilidad pública”. Ello obstaculiza la posibilidad de prohibir ciertos proyectos por autoridades municipales y no establece como requisito la consulta previa a las comunidades campesinas afectadas. A las reformas mineras se añaden otras reformas tributarias que facilitan el ingreso y desarrollo de industrias de explotación, así como la aprobación de tratados bilaterales de libre comercio que benefician a corporaciones como Glencore. <br/><br/>El otro gran conflicto en el que se involucra al Gobierno colombiano es en la militarización de las zonas en las que operan las filiales de la ETN. La presencia de fuerzas del Estado en Cesar ha complicado la labor de resistencia y ha causado varios enfrentamientos. En 2007, por ejemplo, tras una huelga de los habitantes de la Jagua de Ibirico, la policía respondió a las protestas pacíficas con gases, agua y disparos, causando la muerte de uno de los participantes y varios heridos. A la militarización estatal contra las protestas se añade la fuerte presencia del conflicto armado interno que se vive en el país, lo que supone la también existencia de grupos paramilitares y contribuye al clima de inseguridad e intimidación para los afectados. <br/><br/>Intentos de acceso a la justicia<br/><br/>Las comunidades afectadas demandan principalmente: (i) que se les dote de garantías para lograr un proceso de reconocimiento de sus derechos; (ii) que se reconozcan los impactos producidos; (iii) que la minería en su territorio no sea ampliada y que, por tanto, se diversifique el modelo económico; y (iv) mayor información y trasparencia para entender la profundidad de los impactos producidos y la cadena de responsabilidad.<br/><br/>En el plano legal, Glencore ha sido denunciada a nivel nacional en varias instancias, consiguiendo que la transnacional fuese multada en los casos de evasión de impuestos y delito medioambientales. Sin embargo, la mayoría de las denuncias que provienen de la sociedad civil suelen ser archivadas inmediatamente. El difícil acceso a la justicia local es uno de los principales obstáculos de la campaña. Otras estrategias más exitosas han sido la investigación independiente del impacto de las empresas mineras, la promoción de sus demandas en medios de comunicación tanto nacionales como internacionales y el intercambio de información entre otras comunidades afectadas de Colombia. <br/><br/>Lo que la justicia podría hacer: una opinión del TPP<br/><br/>En la sesión en Ginebra de junio, 2014, el Tribunal Permanente de los Pueblos (TPP) escuchó el testimonio de miembros del Centro de Estudios para la Justicia Social “Tierra Digna”. De acuerdo a lo expuesto ante los jueces del tribunal, éste reconoció las acciones de la corporación transnacional como otro ejemplo de violaciones de derechos humanos y de los pueblos. De acuerdo a la sentencia de Madrid, en mayo de 2010, y unos meses antes de la sesión que tuvo lugar en México en Diciembre 2014, el TPP resaltó de nuevo cómo las corporaciones transnacionales, incluida Glencore, violan sistemáticamente estos derechos para su propio beneficio. El tribunal reconoció en esta extendida práctica la evidente limitación del derecho internacional. La imposibilidad del acceso a la justicia y a obtener remediación está convirtiéndose en una carga cada vez mayor para las comunidades afectadas, así como las leyes que deberían protegerlas. Así mismo, el TPP reconoció la necesidad de mejorar la legislación internacional, incluyendo un tratado vinculante para las corporaciones transnacionales y un Tratado de los Pueblos, para que así estas empresas sean consecuentes con sus acciones.<br/><br/>(1) Onstad, E., MacInnis, L. and Webb, Q. (2011, Feb. 25). "Special report: The biggest company you never heard of", Reuters. Retrieved from: http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/25/us-glencore-idUSTRE71O1DC20110225?pageNumber=2 <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>PPT case: Glencore and Prodeco coal mining, Colombia</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/colombia">Colombia</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Departamento de Cesar </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>MEDIUM regional level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Mineral ore exploration<br /> Coal extraction and processing<br /> Tailings from mines<br /> Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)<br /> Building materials extraction (quarries, sand, gravel)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/coal'>Coal</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>01/01/1995</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/glencore-international-ag'>Glencore International AG</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/switzerland'><small>Switzerland</small></a><br /><a href='/company/prodeco'>Prodeco</a><br /><a href='/company/fenoco'>Fenoco</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/colombia'><small>Colombia</small></a> - <small>Prodeco has shares in it</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Gobierno de Colombia, República de Colombia, Autoridad Nacional de Licencias Ambientales (ANLA), Presidencia de la Republica, Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sostenible, Ministerio de Minas y Energia, Policía Nacional de Colombia, Ministerio de Defensa</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Centro de Estudios para la Justicia Social “Tierra Digna”, Pensamiento y Acción Social PAS, CINEP, FIAN Colombia, ASK, Misereor, Global Campaign to Dismantle Corporate Power, Permanent Peoples Tribunal</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Artisanal miners<br /> International ejos<br /> Ethnically/racially discriminated groups<br /> Landless peasants<br /> Local ejos<br /> Social movements<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Trade unions<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> Industrial workers<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)<br /> Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of alternative proposals<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches<br /> Presentation to the case to the Popular Peoples Tribunal</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Mine tailing spills</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Occupational disease and accidents</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Application of existing regulations<br /> Corruption<br /> New legislation<br /> Court decision (undecided)<br /> Criminalization of activists<br /> Repression<br /> Deaths<br /> Strengthening of participation<br /> Violent targeting of activists</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>The affected communities mainly demand: (i) that they a process to recognize their rights is guaranteed; (ii) that the impacts of the activities are recognized; (iii) that mining in their territory is not extended and thus that the economic model is diversified; and (iv) more information and transparency to understand the extent of the impacts and the chain of responsibility. Additionally, among their priorities are the resettlement of the displaced communities in a place where their communitarian life and self-sustainability are assured and the access to national and regional justice for the investigation of the violations.<br/><br/>Las comunidades afectadas demandan principalmente: (i) que se les dote de garantías para lograr un proceso de reconocimiento de sus derechos; (ii) que se reconozcan los impactos producidos; (iii) que la minería en su territorio no sea ampliada y que, por tanto, se diversifique el modelo económico; y (iv) mayor información y trasparencia para entender la profundidad de los impactos producidos y la cadena de responsabilidad. Además, entre sus prioridades se encuentran el reasentamiento de las comunidades desplazadas en un lugar en el que se garantice la vida comunitaria y autosostenible y el acceso a la justicia tanto nacional como regional para la investigación de las violaciones sufridas. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The mining activities still continue, as well as the impunity in the national cases that the company faces. There are still displaced communities that have received no compensation nor resettlement.<br/><br/>Las actividades mineras todavía no han cesado y la impunidad de la empresa en los casos nacionales abiertos contra ella sigue latente. Hay comunidades que siguen desplazadas sin haber recibido compensación ni reasentamiento. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> American Convention on Human Rights<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.oas.org/dil/treaties_B-32_American_Convention_on_Human_Rights.htm" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Constitución de Colombia<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.constitucioncolombia.com/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Principios Rectores del Relator de Empresas y Derechos Humanos<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.ohchr.org/EN/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/CESCR.aspx" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Informe sombra de sostenibilidad de las operaciones de Glencore en Colombia<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.askonline.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/documents/Thema_Wirtschaft_und_Menschenrechte/Bergbau_Rohstoff/Glencore_Kolumbien/INFORME_SOMBRA_GLENCORE_-_SHADOW_REPORT_layout.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Tierra Digna<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tierradigna.org/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> PAS, Pensamiento y Acción Social<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.pas.org.co/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> CINEP - Centro de Investigación y Educación Popular<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.cinep2015.org/Old/2014_V1/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> FIAN Colombia<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.fiancolombia.org/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Global Campaign to Dismantle Corporate Power<br/><a class="refanch small" href="stopcorporateimpunity.org" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Testimony of the case in the Permanent Peoples Tribunal Hearing - Corporate Human Rights Violations and Peoples Access to Justice. Geneva, 23 June 2014<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://justice5continents.net/fc/viewtopic.php?t=1069&vplay=1" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Banner del TPP, Geneve</strong> Source: http://www.prensaindigena.mx/web/noticias/86-noticias/6555-suiza-el-tpp-lleva-a-juicio-a-coca-cola-glencore-y-otras-corporaciones<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/TPP_glencore.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>PPT bench in Geneve</strong> Source: http://www.enlazandoalternativas.org/spip.php?article1195<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/TPP_Jurado_Ginebra_2.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Comments</td><td>See more at: http://www.tierradigna.org/</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Tierra Digna, Global Campaign to Dismantle Corporate Power, Transnational Institute - TNI, Friends of the Earth International</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>27/08/2015</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
Comments