Gold Mining, Sudan

There are more than 40,000 gold mining sites in Sudan. About 60 gold processing companies are operating in 13 states of the country.


Description

There are more than 40,000 gold mining sites in Sudan. About 60 gold processing companies are operating in 13 states of the country, 15 of them in South Kordofan. [1]

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Basic Data
NameGold Mining, Sudan
CountrySudan
ProvinceSouth Kordofan
SiteKalogi
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Mineral ore exploration
Tailings from mines
Mineral processing
Specific CommoditiesGold
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe Geological Research Authority of Sudan (GRAS) estimated that every week between 50 and 100 kilograms of extracted gold are sent to Khartoum for black market sale and export. 75 per cent of gold gets smuggled. And smuggling is being enabled by the inconsistency of policies regulating the sector, monetary policies, corruption and militia control of the gold producing area of Jebel Amir. Between 2010 and 2014, more than $4.5 billion worth of gold was smuggled from Sudan to the United Arab Emirates, according to the report of the U.N. panel of experts. [4]
Type of PopulationRural
Start Date2015
Company Names or State EnterprisesSudanese Company for Mining from Sudan
Ariab Gold Mining Company
Orca Gold
Siberian Golden Stone from Russian Federation
Azhab El Amin Company from Saudi Arabia
Relevant government actorsMinistry of Environment, Natural Resources and Physical Development

Ministry of Minerals
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersThe National Environmental Advocacy Committee

Sudan Democracy First Group: http://www.democracyfirstgroup.org
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingArtisanal miners
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Pastoralists
Social movements
Forms of MobilizationCreation of alternative reports/knowledge
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Public campaigns
Sabotage
Street protest/marches
Property damage/arson
Threats to use arms
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Militarization and increased police presence, Increase in violence and crime
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCorruption
Criminalization of activists
Deaths
Repression
Violent targeting of activists
Development of AlternativesDifferent demands are being submitted in differents parts of Sudan affected by gold mining. Some want the complete dismantling of mining factories. Others want the reduction of the use of cyanide and other toxic chemicals that affect the population and the environment as well as safer working conditions. Others want the implementation of stricter environmental standards and regulation.
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.The government has tried to introduce regulations for the million people employed in the industry, especially in gold mines. But most operations in Sudan are rudimentary and rely on traditional extraction methods. Mining accidents are commonplace - 60 miners were killed in one accident last year when their tunnel collapsed. Other dangers are posed by the materials used to extract gold such as mercury, which has resulted in high cancer rates among workers.

In addition, a recent report by the Enough Project found that gold mining and mineral extraction in the country was directly responsible for war crimes in the country’s south. In those areas, civilians living around gold mining sites have suffered killings, mass rape, and the torching of their homes and fields at the hands of armed groups, including the Sudanese army and tribal militias fighting with government backing.

[8][9][10]
Sources and Materials
References

[10] - Fool's Gold: The Case for Scrutinizing Sudan's Conflict Gold Trade
[click to view]

[4] - The Politics of Mining and Trading of Gold in Sudan: Challenges of Corruption and Lack of Transparency
[click to view]

Links

[5] - Gold mining to increase in Sudan's South Kordofan
[click to view]

[7] - Wali: Police secure disputed mining site in Sudan's River Nile state
[click to view]

[9] - Miners facing the abyss in Egypt and Sudan
[click to view]

[2] - Two killed in South Kordofan dispute over gold extraction plant
[click to view]

[8] - Gulf companies investing in Sudanese gold despite 'war-crimes links'
[click to view]

[1] - Sudanese environment expert warns for the use of cyanide in gold mining
[click to view]

[3] - Student succumbs to bullet wounds in anti-mining protest, South Kordofan
[click to view]

[6] - Police kill anti-mining rioter in Sudan's River Nile
[click to view]

Media Links

Sudanese miners risk health for gold
[click to view]

Other Documents

Top 3 African Gold Producers https://www.alaraby.co.uk/english/news/2016/10/28/gulf-companies-investing-in-sudanese-gold-despite-war-crimes-links
[click to view]

Demonstration against a gold mining factory in Sudan 7 February 2017

https://www.dabangasudan.org/en/all-news/article/sudan-police-deployed-to-gold-factories-in-south-kordofan
[click to view]

Protest against gold mining symposium in Kologi, South Kordofan 12 November 2017

https://www.dabangasudan.org/en/all-news/article/police-kill-student-in-anti-mining-protest-south-kordofan
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorChristophe Maroun - christophemaroun91@gmail.com
Last update20/03/2018
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