Golf Park Dubrovnik, Croatia

The opposition to the proposed luxury golf course resort on the hill of Srđ overlooking the UNESCO town Dubrovnik resulted in the Citizens’ Initiative "Srđ is Ours" that became symbol of the resistance to mismanagement in spatial policy.


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">The Golf Park Dubrovnik is a one billion-plus euro real-estate international project, which was revealed in 2006. To date, it represents the Croatia’s largest greenfield investment. The project is in line with the Croatian government’s plan to boost the national economy through large investments in tourism and it is one among about 90 proposed golf course developments in Croatia. The company Razvoj Golf owned by Israeli businessman Aaron Frenkel was granted by City of Dubrovnik with concession for the period of 30 years. The project was supported by Australian golfing legend Greg Norman. The project plan includes building of a massive luxury golfing complex on the plateau of Srđ, up on the hillside – above the UNESCO World Heritage Site – The historic city of Dubrovnik. The project has been held up by legal wrangling since the beginning. The citizens' initiative “Srđ is ours”and the NGOs Friends of the Earth Croatia and Zelena Akcija (Green Action) strongly opposed the project because they think that building of the golf field, luxury villas, apartments and hotels would ruin the historical landscape and identity of the city and would negatively impact the local environmental. The Croatian Architects Association (UHA) also supported the cause. The local authority representatives, however, argue that the project will bring new employment to locals and prolong the tourist season, denying accusations of corruption. The referendum of the project was held in April 2013 on the demand of the opponents. Even though, 85 % of Dubrovnik citizens were against of the project, the referendum failed because turnout was only 30 %, well below the 50 % required for it to be valid. In October 2011 a 3 year campaign was launched by the environmental organisation Friends of the Earth Croatia and Zelena Akcija in which they argued that the proposed legislation in relation to development of golf course across Croatia was unconstitutional. In March 2014 Zelena Akcija held a demonstration outside the Croatian parliament. Given that Dubrovnik is a World Heritage site, the project opponents consulted UNESCO.  Despite strong opposition by the NGO sector, the forest law was changed in July 2014 to define golf parks and camping sites as ‘a forests with special purpose’, allow for converting degraded forests to the land for other purposes, and shorten the administrative procedures to dispose of state-owned land to attract new investors. A small victory for the opponents represented the fact that in December 2014 the High Administrative Court cancelled amendments to the Dubrovnik-Neretva county Spatial Plan from 2006. However, the supporters of the project consider that the effect of such judgment is limited to the changes made in 2006 and does not impact on changes that took place afterwards, including the one to triple the size of golf park. Besides, in April 2016 UNESCO in its official finding suggested that project will not harm the protected historical heritage of Dubrovnik. The company Razvoj Golf secured first of many necessary permits for the development of the Golf Park Dubrovnik project in October 2015. The construction work is expected to start in September 2016.   </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Golf Park Dubrovnik, Croatia</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/croatia">Croatia</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Dubrovnik-Neretva County</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Dubrovnik</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Tourism Recreation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Tourism facilities (ski resorts, hotels, marinas)<br /> Land acquisition conflicts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /><a href='/commodity/tourism-services'>Tourism services</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">It is assumed by project opponents that the project will turn one third of Dubrovnik public space into a private development. The plan is to build 240 villas, 400 apartments and 2 hotels. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>310</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>1,353,000,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>40,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2006</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/israeli-businessman-aaron-frenkel'>Israeli businessman Aaron Frenkel</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/israel'><small>Israel</small></a> - <small>Investor</small><br /><a href='/company/australian-golfing-legend-greg-norman'>Australian golfing legend Greg Norman</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/australia'><small>Australia</small></a> - <small>Investor</small><br /><a href='/company/loyds-investment-corporation'>Loyds investment corporation</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-kingdom'><small>United Kingdom</small></a> - <small>Investor</small><br /><a href='/company/razvoj-golf-doo'>Razvoj Golf doo</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/croatia'><small>Croatia</small></a> - <small>Holds a location permit for the development of the Golf Park Dubrovnik project</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>The Government of the Republic of Croatia; The City of Dubrovnik; The Dubrovnik-Neretva County; The Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection of the Republic of Croatia</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Green Action http://zelena-akcija.hr/en; Local citizen initiative ‘Srđ je naš’ https://www.facebook.com/SrdjIsOursDubrovnik; Croatian Architects Association (UHA) http://www.uha.hr</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Social movements<br /> Local scientists/professionals<br /> International artists </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Development of alternative proposals<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Referendum other local consultations</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Planned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Compensation<br /> Court decision (victory for environmental justice)<br /> New legislation<br /> New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>The opponents required deletion of the golf resort from the country spatial plan and cancellation of the project. They organised referendum in April 2013 to assess the citizens' position on the project. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The referendum failed due to the low turnout. Currently, the investor is in a process of obtaining necessary building permits and the beginning of the construction is planned for September 2016.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Zakon o izmjenama i dopunama Zakona o šumama<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://narodne-novine.nn.hr/clanci/sluzbeni/2014_07_94_1884.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Seeing red over green light for golf in Croatia<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://blogs.ft.com/beyond-brics/2014/04/11/seeing-red-over-green-light-for-golf-in-croatia/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Još nema gradnje golf terena na Srđu<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://balkans.aljazeera.net/vijesti/jos-nema-gradnje-golf-terena-na-srdu" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> KLGB SRĐ JE GRAD ‘Golferima dozvola za infrastrukturu koja ne postoji u planovima’<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.dulist.hr/klgb-srd-je-grad-golferima-dozvola-za-infrastrukturu-koja-ne-postoji-u-planovima/317187/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Kako se u Hrvatskoj (ne)gospodari šumama<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.davor-skrlec.eu/kako-se-u-hrvatskoj-negospodari-sumama/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Croatia: controversial golf course<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.euronews.com/2013/05/03/croatia-controversial-golf-course/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Croatia's vote fails to derail golf complex that could change the face of Dubrovnik<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.foxnews.com/world/2013/04/29/croatia-vote-fails-to-derail-golf-complex-that-could-change-face-dubrovnik/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> 'Srđ nikad neće biti nacionalni park, na njemu će netko zaraditi'<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tportal.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/246559/Srd-nikad-nece-biti-nacionalni-park-na-njemu-ce-netko-zaraditi.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> ‘Srđ je naš’, a Golf Park Dubrovnik ima potpuno novi web<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://gadgeterija.tportal.hr/2013/04/22/srd-je-nas-a-golf-park-dubrovnik-ima-potpuno-novi-web/#.U5mHjHJ_ueY" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> 'Srđ je naš': 10.000 glasova je dovoljno da se golf odbaci<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tportal.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/258315/Srd-je-nas-10-000-glasova-je-dovoljno-da-se-golf-odbaci.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Naš Srđ uskoro će postati njihov<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tportal.hr/vijesti/hrvatska/230411/Nas-Srd-uskoro-ce-postati-njihov.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Dubrovački arhitekti protiv izgradnje na Srđu<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tportal.hr/kultura/kulturmiks/276818/Dubrovacki-arhitekti-protiv-izgradnje-na-Srdu.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Documentary "A Dangerous Game" exposes the evil Donald Trump<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.vancitybuzz.com/2015/06/a-dangerous-game-donald-trump-documentary/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Doznajemo što nam je vlast željela sakriti: Vlada se obvezala golferima na Srđu izgraditi infrastrukturu i dati zemlju u koncesiju!<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.index.hr/vijesti/clanak/doznajemo-sto-nam-je-vlast-zeljela-sakriti-vlada-se-obvezala-golferima-na-srdju-izgraditi-infrastrukturu-i-dati-zemlju-u-koncesiju-/673232.aspx" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Sud poništio prostorni plan koji je omogućio golf na Srđu<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.index.hr/vijesti/clanak/sud-ponistio-prostorni-plan-koji-je-omogucio-golf-na-srdju/790717.aspx" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> NAJKONTROVERZNIJI PROJEKT U HRVATSKOJ Srđ je naš: 'Ništa od golfa!'; Vlahušić: 'Samo neka se počne graditi!'<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.jutarnji.hr/razvoj-golf--prva-lopata-pocetkom-zime-srd-je-nas--opet-nece-biti-nista-od-toga-vlahusic--samo-neka-se-pocne-graditi/1399859/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Razvoj golf dobio lokacijsku dozvolu za Srđ<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.dubrovniknet.hr/novost.php?id=41041#.VyIO_GdcSkp" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Dark Side of the Greens - a BBC 4 documentary<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.pitchcare.com/magazine/bbc-4-documentary.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Golf and property development – time for a divorce<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.golfretailing.com/features/golf-and-property-development-time-for-a-divorce/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Ivan Kusalić: Sad je na potezu Grad Dubrovnik<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.dulist.hr/ivan-kusalic-sad-je-na-potezu-grad-dubrovnik/314856/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Razvoj golf got the first building permit<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.golfparkdubrovnik.hr/en/news/view/razvoj-golf-got-the-first-building-permit-/27" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> DuTV - 23.04.2013. Sučeljavanje: Capor i Kusalić (Golf Park Dubrovnik)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v0j-6meDEkw" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> GOLF PARK DUBROVNIK<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Idm-h0BZIfk" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> A dangerous game (movie)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.adangerousgamemovie.com/#watch-now" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>The plateau of Srđ</strong> The view from the top of the plateau of Srđ over the walled port of city of Dubrovnik (UNESCO World Heritage site since 1979) and the most famous Croatian touristic destination<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/1._golfproject.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Collecting signs for referendum</strong> The referendum in on the The Golf Park Dubrovnik project was held on the citizents initiative "Srđ is ours" demand.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/2._preparation_for_the_referendum.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Jovanka Spiric, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, vankajo(at)gmail.com</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>29/04/2016</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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