High voltage eletricity transmission lines, Portugal

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">High-voltage power lines, also called transmission lines, are those whose nominal voltage is greater than or equal to 60 kV. These lines connect electric generation plants (thermal, hydro and wind power plants) to substations or between several substations. They are usually aerial, but can be run underground. In Portugal, the construction of a number of these structures was planned in various parts of the country by the National Power Network (REN) and led to protests of local people and the creation of a National Civic Movement Against High-Voltage Power Lines. Communities are concerned because a number of studies suggest the increase of leukemia cases in children, higher risk of brain tumors and the frequency of stress cases and depression due to low frequency noise from high-power lines.</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">In 2005, there was the public consultation from the Environmental Impact Assessment-EIA of a high-voltage line of 220 kV, designed by REN to connect the Alto Mira substation, in Amadora, to the Trajouce substation in the municipality of Cascais, crossing the municipality of Sintra. The most affected county would be the municipality of Sintra, receiving the installation of 27 out of 30 electricity towers, which in some cases would be located 25 meters from houses. Only on the last day of the public consultation and due to the mobilization of the Environmental Association Olho Vivo, did local people become aware of the project. The local Civic Movement criticized the lack of public participation in the public consultation and asked for the line to be buried underground. The movement started a petition and collected more than 5 thousand signatures. In 2006, the State Environment Secretary, in the environmental impact statement of the project, argued against the placement of towers in the archaeological area of Alto Colaride. <br/><br/>In August, Quercus and Olho Vivo announced a legal process against the Portuguese State for non-fulfillment of the directives concerning the very high-voltage line present in the environmental impact assessment and for not making alternative studies, as required by European legislation. In March 2007, about 100 people protested in Sintra. A public petition was approved unanimously by the Parliament Commission of the local Government. Members announced the formation of a working group with representatives from all parties to follow up on the issue. The operation of the line was temporarily suspended but restarted later. In December, an agreement between REN and the City Council of Sintra was established so that part of the line was to be buried. This operation, supported by the local authority, started in March 2008.<br/><br/>These events occurred in parallel and together with similar conflicts in other places across the country. In April 2007 there was a meeting of several national civic movements against power lines and the National Movement Against High-Voltage Lines in Urban Areas was created. In August, after the planning and approval of the installation of the very high-voltage line between Tunes-Estoi route, crossing the municipalities of Silves, Albufeira, Loulé and São Brás de Alportel, the Neighborhood Association of the population from Vale Fuzeiros (Silves) began to actively question the installation of this line and the route chosen, demanding the lines' displacement to the north as an alternative solution. A petition addressed to the parliamentary group Portuguese Communist Party-PCP collected more than 300 signatures a detailed report on the case was presented, claiming that the proposed route was very close to housing and would, therefore, affect ecological areas, organic farms and tourism projects, endangering local archaeological heritage. REN announced that the route would be changed in order to safeguard existing archaeological remains in Vale Fuzeiros, but the population did not accept this concession. In October, a vigil and hunger strike was organized near the São Bento Palace, in Lisbon, by the National Movement Against the Power Lines initiated by Sintra and Silves residents. Further studies were carried out and new paths were proposed, but the population continued to protest and REN paralyzed the construction of the new high-voltage line Tunes-Estoi in the valley. The Silves population celebrated this "desistence", but part of the line already built in Tunes-Estoi caused problems in other lines, such as in Alcalar and Poio, connecting the wind power of Espinhaço de Cão (Lagos) and Porto de Lagos (Portimão), and in the section of Albufeira substation. Facing mass protests, the City Council and Energies Distribution of Portugal-EDP signed an agreement to run the high-power lines underground.<br/><br/>The Power line Foz Tua-Amamar, which crosses an area in the Alto Douro Vinhateiro, Region classified as world heritage by the UNESCO, together with the Foz Tua dam, was also challenged by the Platform Save Tua. In April 2012, the Ministry of Environment through the Environmental Impact Statement gave an unfavorable opinion to the line installation because this would have significant socio-economic impacts in terms of land use, landscape and conservation of cultural heritage of humanity. In a joint press statement , environmental associations such as LPN, GEOTA, FAPAS and Association of Friend of Vale do Tua River, expressed their support to the Ministry of Environment's decision reinforcing the idea of the poor design of the Foz Tua dam project. The EDP announced that it would explore alternatives, which included the need to bury the line, which the associations have described as an attempt to camouflage the negative impacts.<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td> High voltage eletricity transmission lines, Portugal</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/portugal">Portugal</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Sintra, Silves, Foz Tua, Albufeira, Portimão</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>LOW country/state level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Infrastructure and Built Environment</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /><a href='/commodity/electricity'>Electricity</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The high-voltage line Fanhões-Trajouce has over 40 km and runs at 220 kV. The high-power towers would have between 31 m (the lowest) and 75 m (the highest), most of the towers measuring about 50 m, as stated in the Environmental Impact Study.</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">The high-voltage line Tunes-Estoi has over 40 km and runs at 150 Kv.<br/><br/>In the project, the high-power line Foz Tua-Amamar has over 40 km and runs at 400 kV.<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>500,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>01/01/2005</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/redes-energeticas-nacionais'>Redes Energéticas Nacionais <small>(REN)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/portugal'><small>Portugal</small></a><br /><a href='/company/energias-de-portugal'>EDP - Energias de Portugal <small>(EDP)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/portugal'><small>Portugal</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Ministérios do Ambiente e da Economia, Ordenamento do Território e Poder Local, Tribunal Fiscal e Administrativo de Sintra, Supremo Tribunal, Tribunal Central e Administrativo do Sul, Câmara Municipal de Sintra, Assembleia da República, Ministério as Saúde, Assembleias Municipais</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Associação ambientalista Olho Vivo, Comissão de Moradores de Sintra, Movimento Nacional Contra as Linhas de Alta Tensão Nas Zonas Urbanas, Movimento Cívico pelo enterramento da linha de alta tensão, Associação de Moradores da população de Vale Fuzeiros<br/><br/>Plataforma Salvar o Tua, Quercus, Liga para a Proteção da Natureza-LPN, Grupo de Estudos em Ordenamento do Território e Ambiente-GEOTA, Fundo para a Proteção dos Animais Selvagens-FAPAS, Associação dos Amigos do vale do Rio Tua</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Social movements</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Development of a network/collective action<br /> Development of alternative proposals<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Street protest/marches<br /> Hunger strikes and self immolation</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>A number of studies suggest the increase of leukemia cases in children, higher risk of brain tumors and the frequency of stress cases and depression due to low frequency noise from high-power lines.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>Tourist and agricultural activities are affect. There is a property depreciation in lands that are crossed by these lines; situation recognized by case law of Porto Appeal Court, dated actions in 1995 and 2001.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Stopped</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Institutional changes<br /> Negotiated alternative solution<br /> Strengthening of participation<br /> Under negotiation<br /> Application of existing regulations<br /> New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study<br /> Project temporarily suspended<br /> </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>In some cases, alternative solutions consisted in the use of a line already in place for the electricity transmission or deviation in the planned line route in order to sidetrack the affected area. There was also the question in relation to alternatives to the construction of dams, the structure associated to the need for high-power line installation in the case of Foz Tua. These alternatives would be the repowering of the old dams and investment in energy savings</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Yes</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The fight against high-voltage lines fulfilled the role to educate the general population about the risks of these infrastructures. In many cases, local movements with the support of national movement support, managed to cancel the installation projects, redirect their path to locals less dangerous to populations or perform the burial of these structures.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Portaria n.º 1421/2004 de 23 de Novembro<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.edpdistribuicao.pt/pt/seguranca/Pages/camposElectromagneticos.aspx" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Estudo sobre o Impacto das Linhas Eléctricas de Média e Alta Tensão na Avifauna em Portugal<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.spea.pt/fotos/editor2/relatorio_edp_icn_spea_quercus_avifaunai.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION-WHO. Electromagnetic fields and public health. Exposure to extremely low frequency fields. Jun. 2007.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.who.int/peh-emf/publications/facts/fs322/en/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> OLSEN, Jorgen, H.; Nielsen, Annelise; Schulgen, Gabi. Residence near high voltage facilities and risk of cancer in children. Papers, v. 307, p. 891-895, 9 Out. 1993.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1679052/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> CORREIO DA MANHÃ. Sintra: cem contra muito alta tensão. Notícias, 4 Mar. 2007.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.cmjornal.xl.pt/nacional/portugal/detalhe/sintra-cem-contra-muito-alta-tensao.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> AGÊNCIA LUSA. Alta tensão: assembleia municipal de Portimão exige ao governo alteração do traçado naquele concelho algarvio. Sapo Notícias, 10 Jan. 2008.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://noticias.sapo.pt/lusa/artigo/23156c51c2ea941b1f28b4.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> REVÉZ, Idálio. Algarve discute traçado de linha de alta tensão. Jornal Público, 17 de Fevereiro de 2002.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.publico.pt/local-lisboa/jornal/algarve-discute-tracado-de-linha-de-alta-tensao-177582" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> AGÊNCIA LUSA. Estudo de Impacto Ambiental apresenta 8 soluções para linha de alta tensão no Douro. Jornal i, 6 de Abril de 2014<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.ionline.pt/artigos/portugal/estudo-impacto-ambiental-apresenta-8-solucoes-linha-alta-tensao-no-douro" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> GALRÃO, LUÍS. Greve de fome contra alta tensão no Parlamento. Diário de Notícias, 23 de Outubro 2007.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.dn.pt/inicio/interior.aspx?content_id=987519" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> CARMO, Helena. Alta tensão em zonas habitadas. ESQUERDA NET. 26 de Novembro de 2007.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.esquerda.net/dossier/alta-tens%C3%A3o-em-zonas-habitadas" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> BERENGUER, Márcio. Estudos científicos alertam para os perigos de viver ao lado de linhas de alta tensão. Diário de Notícias da Madeira, 3 de Abril de 2007.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.saudinha.com/parcerias/revista_imprensa/diario_noticias/2007/dn_2007_04_03_01_k.htm " target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> PÚBLICO. Ambientalistas levam linhas de alta tensão a Bruxelas. Jornal Público, 19 de Agosto de 2006.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.publico.pt/local-lisboa/jornal/ambientalistas-levam-linhas-de-alta-tensao-a-bruxelas-94072" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Reportagem do programa Nós por Cá da SIC sobre cabos de muito alta tensão.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DcqytH_EqB0" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/E_LAT_V2.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/E_LAT_Q1.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Comments</td><td>Since there were protests in many places, the GPS refers to the geographic center of Portugal. GPS of each conflict: Sintra: 38.812198, -9.382556 Vale Fuzeiros: 37.250686, -8.352163 Foz do Tua: 41.208884, -7.420833 Albufeira: 37.092785, -8.247788 Portimão: 37.144183, -8.539399. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Inês Ribeiro, Lúcia Fernandes and Stefania Barca </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>25/02/2015</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>