Highway, Part of Scan Link, Ljungskile, Sweden

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">In January 1985, the Swedish government presented a plan to expand the road E6 between Uddevalla and Stora Höga to become a highway. This followed after a lobby organization called European Round Table of Industrialists (for more information, see reference 12) presented a vision of a Scandinavian Link that would stretch between Hamburg and Oslo through Denmark and Sweden. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> This particular part of the road, between Uddevalla and Stora Höga was planned to run straight through a town called Ljungskile. The plans to build this road, and furthermore the Scandinavian Link project with industries in the lead, spurred a resistance among citizens, EJOs and youth organizations of political parties so big that it has been called the largest case of civil disobedience in Swedish history. The lead organization in the opposition was Motlänken (literally against the link) who organized the resistance and actions. The culmination of the mobilization occurred in October 1987 when activists climbed trees that were to be cut down to make way for the construction of the road. This was done after the government had rejected all appeals and years of opposition against the project. Over 400 activists were arrested and convicted for civil disobedience. <br/><br/> Today, 25 years later, the entire Scandinavian Link is close to finalized, and besides the highway through Ljungskile this massive infrastructure project included among other things, building the Öresund bridge between Sweden and Denmark. (1-11)<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Highway, Part of Scan Link, Ljungskile, Sweden</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/sweden">Sweden</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Bohuslän</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Ljungskile</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Infrastructure and Built Environment</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)<br /> Deforestation<br /> Pollution related to transport (spills, dust, emissions)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><br /><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">The highway between Uddevalla and Stora Höga is approximately 40 km, however, the Scandinavian Link is a much larger infrastructure project involving highways, tunnels and bridges in several European countries. <br/><br/></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Unknown</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>1984</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Vägverket</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/european-round-table-of-industrialists'>European Round Table of Industrialists</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Motlänken (no webpage), Järnvägsfrämjandet, www.jarnvagsframjandet.se, Miljöförbundet Jordens Vänner (Friends of the Earth Sweden), www.jordensvanner.se, Fältbiologerna, www.faltbiologerna.se, Naturskyddsföreningen, www.nsf.se, (These are only a few of the organisations that opposed the project. In total around 100 organizations joined the resistance.)</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Social movements</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Blockades<br /> Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Development of alternative proposals<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Land occupation<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Air pollution, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Soil contamination, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Accidents, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Deaths</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Criminalization of activists<br /> Court decision (failure for environmental justice)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>The proposal from the mobilizers focused on an effort to improve the rail system instead of expanding highways.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Despite massive protests from EJOs, citizens, political parties and other organizations, Scandinavian Link was built. On top of that, over 400 activists were convicted in court for civil disobedience and the town of Ljunskile has a large highway running straight through the community.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> (1) Petersson, Göran. 2004. En miljöhistoria: Trädkramare mot Motorväg – Petrokemi plus bilar hotar skogen.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://publications.lib.chalmers.se/records/fulltext/local_124261.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> (12) Cowles, Maria Green. 1995. Setting the Agenda for a New Europe: The ERT and EC 1992. Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 33, No. 4, pp. 501-526. <br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.american.edu/sis/faculty/upload/Cowles-Setting-the-Agenda-for-A-New.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> (2) Trädkramarna firade 20-årsjubileum, Flamman, 2008-02-13<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.flamman.se/tradkramarna-firade-20-arsjubileum" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> (3) Trädkramarseminarium 20 år senare<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://old.faltbiologerna.se/arkiv/1065/traedkramarseminarium-20-ar-senare" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> (4) Trädkramarna<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://arvet.hamn4an.se/sites/default/files/documents/24-09//1988-00-00.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> (5) Tillgänglighet för alla – Ett studiematerial, Miljöförbundet Jordens Vänner<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.mjv.se/filer/TrafikSkrift2010_webb.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> (6) Trädkramare 20-årsjubilerar (Radio program)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?programid=972&artikel=2070307" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> (7) Reporter Cecilia Bergil kommenterar: 'Klart han är nöjd, Gyllenhammar' (Radio program)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?programid=125&artikel=5494854" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> (8) Trädkramarna efter 20 år, Miljömagasinet, No. 6, 2008-02-08<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.miljomagasinet.se/artiklar/080326_tradkramare.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> (9) Järnvägsfrämjandet 30 år<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.jarnvagsframjandet.se/projekt/071012-30ar.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> (10) Hamnarbetaren, Vol. 15. No. 3, 1987<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://arvet.hamn4an.se/sites/default/files/documents/14-10//1987-no03.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> (11) Hamnarbetaren, Vol. 14. No. 4, 1985<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://arvet.hamn4an.se/sites/default/files/documents/14-10//1985-no04.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Linda Dubec</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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