Hoa Binh Hydropower Dam, Vietnam

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">The Hoa Binh hydropower project was constructed in Vietnam's Hoa Binh Province on the Black (Da) River between 1979 and April 1994 and financed by the former Soviet Union at the cost of an estimated US$1.5 billion to US$2 billion. The dam sits at 734m wide and 128m high and its eight turbines have a production capacity of 1920 MW. The project is owned and operated by Vietnam Electricity (EVN) and was constructed as a multipurpose dam for flood control, electricity generation, irrigation, and navigation. However, the project inundated 11,000 ha of land and displaced approximately 58,000 people belonging to the Muong, Tay, Dao, Thai Trang, Thai Den, and Khinh ethnic groups. Major impacts of the dam included a loss in fisheries, problems of deforestation, a loss of local ecosystems, land use issues for farming, and a loss of livelihoods and cultural identity. The majority of those resettled relied on farming as their livelihoods but agricultural land in the resettlement villages was largely inadequate to continue agricultural practices. Beyond this, compensation provided was also inadequate as there was no resettlement planning established for the project. Many households were forced to move up to three times before they were able to find land to support themselves and the most recent study conducted in 2009 showed that conditions have not improved much for many resettled communities. (1) (2) (7) (8)</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Hoa Binh Hydropower Dam, Vietnam</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/vietnam">Vietnam</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Hoa Binh Province, Da River</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Hoa Binh</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Water Management</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Aquaculture and fisheries<br /> Water access rights and entitlements<br /> Water treatment and access to sanitation (access to sewage)<br /> Deforestation<br /> Intensive food production (monoculture and livestock)<br /> Dams and water distribution conflicts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /><a href='/commodity/electricity'>Electricity</a><br /><a href='/commodity/fish'>Fish</a><br /><a href='/commodity/water'>Water</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">1,920 MW</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>11,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>$1.5 Billion - $2 Billion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>58,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>11/1979</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Ministry of Industry and Trade, Ministry of Forestry, Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Agriculture</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Commission for Social Sciences</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LOW (some local organising)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>Mobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Local scientists/professionals<br /> Local NGOs, International NGOs, International scientists/professionals</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Waste overflow, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Malnutrition</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..)</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Compensation<br /> Institutional changes<br /> Migration/displacement<br /> New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>An environmental impact assessment was not completed for the project; the only assessments were unofficial documents.<br/><br/>There was poor planning and a lack of foresight into conditions necessary for successful agriculture for resettled people. Where people received land compensation, soil fertility was poor and arable land was very limited.<br/><br/>During project construction there were no environmental laws to protect resources and livelihoods dependent on them.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> 1991 Law on Forest Protection and Development<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> 1987 Land Law<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> 1993 Land Law of Vietnam (only considered once project was mostly completed and already partially operational)<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> 1992 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (only considered once project was mostly completed and already partially operational)<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> 1993 Law of Land and Territory<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Nguyen, Ang Tuan (2012). A Case Study on Power Sector Restructuring in Vietnam. Pacific Energy Summit. Hanoi, Vietnam<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Nguyen, Quang Tuyen (2010). Land Law Reforms in Vietnam “ Past & Present. Working Paper Series No. 015. Asian Law Institute.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Pham, Anh Huyen (2010). Evaluation of Socio-Economic Impact Assessment in Power Sector Projects in Vietnam. School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich. Masters Dissertation.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Bogachenko, P.T., Godunov, B.I., & Ne, Thai Phunc (1985). Characteristics of the First Stage of Constructing the Hoa Binh Dam in Vietnam. Plenum Publishing Corporation. Foreign Experience and Techniques.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Hirsch, Philip (1992). Social and Environmental Implications of Resource Development in Vietnam: The Case of Hoa Binh Reservoir. Research Institute for Asia and the Pacific, University of Sydney & Institute of Science Management, Hanoi.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Cao Thi Thu Yen (2003). Towards Sustainability of Vietnam's Large Dams: Resettlement in Hydropower Projects. Master of Science Thesis, Department of Infrastructure, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Dang Quang Tinh (n.d.). Participatory Planning and Management for Flood Mitigation and Preparedness and Trends in the Red River Basin, Viet Nam. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Doberstein, Brent (2003). EIA models and capacity building in Viet Nam: an analysis of development aid programs. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. Elsevier Inc. 24(2004) 283-318<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Long, Le Thanh (2001). Vietnamese Water Resources Legislation and Legal Regulation of Dams: Viewed Through the World Commission on Dams' Suggested Policy Framework. American University International Law Review. Vol. 16, Issue 6, Article 9, pp 1631-1694<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Nga Dao (2011) Damming Rivers in Vietnam: A Lesson Learned in the Tay Bac Region. Journal of Vietnamese Studies, Vol. 6, Issue 2, pp 106-140.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Nga Dao (2010) Dam Development in Vietnam: The Evolution of Dam-Induced Resettlement Policy Water Alternatives, Vol. 3, Issue 2, pp 324-340<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Nga Dao Thi Viet (2012) Resettlement, Displacement and Agrarian Change in Northern Uplands of Vietnam. PhD Dissertation Graduate Program in Geography. York University. Toronto, Ontario.<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Vietnam National Committee on Large Dams and Water Resources Development:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.vncold.vn/En/Web/Content.aspx?distid=257" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Carl Middleton, Sarah Allen, Matilde Sgotto</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>24/06/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>