Hoa Mac Industrial Park Land Disputes, Duy Tien District, Vietnam

From agriculture to industry: land grabs, lack of participation and low compensations mark the process of industrialization in Duy Tien District.


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">For many years, Duy Tien District in Ha Nam province was characterized by a largely agricultural economy, which however has experienced rapid industrialization within the last decades. Among the district’s recent industrialization projects is the Hoa Mac Industrial Park (IP), whose implementation has required the displacement of hundreds of families from their agricultural lands, in absence of a proper consultation or participation process regarding the project development [1].</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">The Hoa Mac Industrial Park (IP), located mainly in Chau Giang and Trac Van communes, was approved by the Prime Minister in 2003 through Decision 2003/TTg, 25/12/2007. The project was largely supported by local officials, who perceived the park as a chance to attract local investment and jobs. In 2008, land clearance started, but proved to be conflictive, as 134ha of former agricultural land from more than 600 households needed to be acquired [1]. <br/><br/>No consultations on the relocation process took place, violating people’s land rights, and leaving them without participation and choice in the development of the project. People were unable to negotiate with the investors, which they perceived as buyers of their land. Moreover, while the provincial government had kept the land prices low in order to attract investors, the low land prices also resulted in low compensations, perceived by affected villagers as unjust, particularly, when they compared them with other cases from neighbouring provinces, in which people had received 5 to 10 times more. The villagers further worried about their future livelihood, as the project caused them to be resettled to a new location [1].<br/><br/>People voiced their opposition, however, largely in informal ways such as village meetings, but no official complaint letters were written, no court cases were reported, which in Vietnam often benefit the state. While by 2013, 500 households had accepted the low compensation and gave up their land, more than 100 households from Trac Van commune refused to accept them and resisted the evictions. These families came from two villages with strong community bonds, allowing them to act collectively [1]. <br/><br/>But the local village officials, convinced of the project, continue to persuade and pressure the villagers to accept: “We knew some families swore together to refuse the compensation. Any of them now would find it hard to accept since they were afraid of being boycotted in the community. Perhaps we have to continue to persuade and wait. Some families would need money and quietly accept. At some point the ‘alliance’ will break down.” (Village official in an interview, as reported by [1]).<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Hoa Mac Industrial Park Land Disputes, Duy Tien District, Vietnam</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/vietnam">Vietnam</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Ha Nam province</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Duy Tien District</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Infrastructure and Built Environment</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Land acquisition conflicts<br /> Urban development conflicts<br /> Other industries<br /> Manufacturing activities</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The total area of Hoa Mac Industrial Park covers 134ha, comprised 82ha from Chau Giang commune, 45ha from Trac Van commune, and 4ha from Hoa Mac town, all located in Duy Tien DisTrict, Ha Nam province [1].</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">The Industrial Park is implemented and operated by the Hoa Mac Industrial Park Management and Development Company Limited, subsidiary of Hoa Phat Urban Development and Construction Joint Stock Company, which is member of the large Hoa Phat Group Joint Stock Company (HPG). Among the investors of the Hoa Phat Group is the Danish BankInvest Group [2].<br/><br/>The first construction phase involved an investment of 310 billion VND (around 14 million USD) [2].<br/><br/>According to Hoa Phat Group’s 2014 financial statement, the group received credits from BIDV, Vietnam Development Bank (VDB), Techcombank, Indovina Bank, ANZ, and Vietinbank [2].<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>134</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>14,000,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>600 households (around 2,500 to 3,000 people)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2007</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/hoa-mac-industrial-park-management-and-development-company-limited'>Hoa Mac Industrial Park Management and Development Company Limited <small>(HPG)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>infrastructure development</small><br /><a href='/company/hoa-phat-urban-development-and-construction-joint-stock-company'>Hoa Phat Urban Development and Construction Joint Stock Company</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>industrial construction</small><br /><a href='/company/hoa-phat-group-joint-stock-company-hpg'>Hoa Phat Group Joint Stock Company (HPG) <small>(HPG)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>industries</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Local village officers<br/><br/>Provincial government<br/><br/>Government of Vietnam</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/bankinvest'>BankInvest</a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/denmark'><small>Denmark</small></a> - <small>investment, asset management</small><br /><a href='/institution/bidv-bank'>BIDV Bank <small>(BIDV)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>banking, investment, finance</small><br /><a href='/institution/vietnam-development-bank-vdb'>Vietnam Development Bank (VDB) <small>(VDB)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>investment, finance</small><br /><a href='/institution/techcombank-vietnam'>Techcombank Vietnam</a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>banking, finance, investment</small><br /><a href='/institution/techcombank-vietnam'>Techcombank Vietnam</a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>banking, finance, investment</small><br /><a href='/institution/indovina-bank-vietnam'>Indovina Bank Vietnam <small>(IVB)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>banking, finance, investment</small><br /><a href='/institution/vietinbank'>VietinBank </a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>banking, finance, investment</small><br /><a href='/institution/anz-bank-group-australia'>ANZ Bank group Australia <small>(ANZ)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/australia'><small>Australia</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>unknown</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LOW (some local organising)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Development of a network/collective action<br /> Land occupation<br /> Refusal of compensation</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Noise pollution<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Malnutrition, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Displacement, Land dispossession<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Under construction</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Compensation<br /> Migration/displacement<br /> Strengthening of participation<br /> Under negotiation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Villagers demand fair compensations</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Not Sure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>While many households were persuaded to accept the low compensations, more than hundred households achieved to resist for at least six years.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Decree No. 84/2007/ND-CP additionally stipulating the grant of land use right certificates, recovery of land, exercise of land use rights, order and procedures for compensation, support and resettlement upon land recovery by the State, and settlement of land related complaints.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://faolex.fao.org/cgi-bin/faolex.exe?rec_id=058640&database=faolex&search_type=link&table=result&lang=eng&[email protected]" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Decree No. 22/1998/NĐ-CP (1998) on compensations for damage when the state recovers land for use in purposes of national defense, security, national interests and public interests<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://kenfoxlaw.com/resources/legal-documents/governmental-decrees/2003-vbpl-sp-27381.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Vietnamese Land Law of 2013 (Land Law No.45/2013/QH13)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.itpc.gov.vn/investors/how_to_invest/law/Law_on_land/mldocument_view/?set_language=en" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Vietnamese Land Law of 2003 (No. 13/2003/QH11)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://moj.gov.vn/vbpq/en/Lists/Vn%20bn%20php%20lut/View_Detail.aspx?ItemID=8269" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> [1] Australian Aid, The Asia Foundation and T&C Consulting, 2014. Public Land Disputes in Vietnam: A Multi-Actor Analysis of Five Case Studies with an East Asian Comparative. (accessed 15/06/2015)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://asiafoundation.org/resources/pdfs/Publiclanddisputesreport.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [2] Hoa Phat Group Company Website: "Hoa Mac Industrial Park - Ha Nam Province received the investment license" (accessed 16/06/2015)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.hoaphat.com.vn/eHome/eNewsdetail.aspx?cid=95&id=3393" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Industrial Park - Plan</strong> Source: http://www.hoaphat.com.vn/eHome/eNewsdetail.aspx?cid=95&id=3393<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/b__PhocanhHM.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>A. Scheidel (ICTA-UAB) / arnim "dot" scheidel "at" gmail "dot" com</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>19/06/2015</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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