Hung Phu Residential Area, Cái Răng, Vietnam

Evictions and unfair compensations provoked a farmer to attempt to commit suicide, while his wife and daughter stripped naked to protest: the actual cost of urban modernization

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">Cái Răng, a peri-urban district of Can Tho City, has been well known for its floating market, which is among the biggest in the Mekong Delta. However, the district is changing rapidly due to urbanization projects, such as through the construction of the Hung Phu Residential Area, causing desperate disputes over land seizes. The Hung Phu Residential Area, supported by local government officials and approved by the Can Tho People Committee in 2002, is a 42ha urban development project, located in Can Tho province, comprised of a school, a mall, a supermarket, residential buildings, and other urban infrastructures [1]. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">For the construction of the urban precinct, 157 households needed to be relocated to other areas. While most households, persuaded by local officials and incentivized by extra-payments for moving quickly, accepted the compensation, 34 households, occupying 1.2ha, resisted the evictions. In addition to concerns regarding their future livelihoods, they complained that compensation offers (400,000 VND/m2) were inadequate as they were much lower than offers reported from other cases in close-by regions, as well as lower than the regional market land price [1;2;3]. The protesters also perceived the compensation as unfair in comparison to the large benefits generated for the investors, when selling the developed land for several millions VND/m2. Moreover, there was a lack of participation and community consultation in the project development, during which resettlement plans and land prices were imposed on the local villagers [1;2]. <br/><br/>People protested against the relocation verbally as well as in form of written complaints to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment and other state agencies; however, their complaints were dismissed [1;3]. No court cases were filed, as generally the villagers perceived the court to support the government, rather than the people [1]. Several attempts to settle the conflict with the remaining families followed and consequently some accepted the raised compensations. One family however completely refused to accept, which led to forced evictions, approved on December 16, 2010. The contractor company started construction work, but the family returned desperately to their land, blocking workers from entering the plot. In a suicide attempt, the husband drank pesticides to protest the evictions, but was rescued later on at the local hospital [1;2]. The wife and daughter then occupied the land and stripped naked to raise to attention their case, however, the security guards forcefully evicted them. Consequently, the wife was fined 1,500,000VND (75USD) for violating the countries norms and a small fine of VND 350,000 (approx. 16USD) was imposed on the Western Security Service Company, for their untrained security guards [1;2;4].<br/><br/>The family’s protest actions brought large attention to the case and made it well known across the country as well as internationally through traditional and social media [1;2]. In the following, a Task-Force was set up to settle the conflict and compromise solutions were sought, but no settlement accepted by the family could be achieved. The company, supported by state agencies, continued the construction of the urban complex [1;3].<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Hung Phu Residential Area, Cái Răng, Vietnam</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/vietnam">Vietnam</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Can Tho province</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Cái Răng District, Can Tho City</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Infrastructure and Built Environment</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Land acquisition conflicts<br /> Urban development conflicts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The Hung Phu Residential area, located in Cái Răng – a peri-urban district of Can Tho City, covers 42ha. The project is comprised by a new urban precinct with a school, mall, supermarket, residential building, and other urban infrastructure [1].</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">The project was approved under Decision 526/QĐ-UBND (2002). Project holder is the No. 8 Construction and Investment JSC (CIC8). The company was established in 1989 by the Ministry of Construction, but became later on (2004) a Joint Stock Company, however, with strong ties to the state [1].<br/><br/>Total investment size is estimated to amount to 1,791 million VDN (approx. 90 million USD) [1]. No information on involved bankers could be found.<br/><br/>157 households are affected by the project [1].<br/><br/>Compensations were regulated and amended through three decisions. Decision 3201/QĐ-UB (October 2002) set compensation for farming land at 44,100 VNĐ /m2; Decision 2967/QĐ-UB increased it to 63,000/m2. Decision QĐ 100/QĐ-CTUB (January 2005) raised the compensation to 400,000 VND per m2 [1].<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>42</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>90,000,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>157 households (approx. 700 - 800 persons)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2002</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/no-8-construction-and-investment-jsc-cic8'>No. 8 Construction and Investment JSC (CIC8) <small>(CIC8)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>construction, property development</small><br /><a href='/company/western-security-service-company'>Western Security Service Company</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/vietnam'><small>Vietnam</small></a> - <small>private security</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment; Government Inspectorate (Thanh tra Chính phủ); Hung Thanh Commune People’s Committee; The People Committee of Cai Rang District</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>no information could be found if/which organizations were supporting the case</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Fishermen<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Women</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Blockades<br /> Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes<br /> Land occupation<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Street protest/marches<br /> Hunger strikes and self immolation<br /> Appeals/recourse to economic valuation of the environment<br /> Refusal of compensation<br /> suicide attempt by one man; his wife and daughter stripped naked to protest</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Food insecurity (crop damage), Noise pollution, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Malnutrition, Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Under construction</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Compensation<br /> Criminalization of activists<br /> Migration/displacement<br /> Repression<br /> Violent targeting of activists<br /> Attempt to commit suicide</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The project goes on</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Vietnamese Land Law of 2003 (No. 13/2003/QH11)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Vietnamese Land Law of 2013 (Land Law No.45/2013/QH13)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Decree No. 22/1998/NĐ-CP (1998) on compensations for damage when the state recovers land for use in purposes of national defense, security, national interests and public interests<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Decree No. 84/2007/ND-CP additionally stipulating the grant of land use right certificates, recovery of land, exercise of land use rights, order and procedures for compensation, support and resettlement upon land recovery by the State, and settlement of land related complaints.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="[email protected]" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> [1] Australian Aid, The Asia Foundation and T&C Consulting, 2014. Public Land Disputes in Vietnam: A Multi-Actor Analysis of Five Case Studies with an East Asian Comparative. (accessed 15/06/2015)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> [2] CNN iREPORT posted online (27/05/2012): "Mother and Daughter Strip Themselves Naked in a Last Ditch Effort to Prevent Seizure of Their Land" (accessed 22/06/2015)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [3] Talk Vietnam online (30/05/2012): "Cai Rang authorities explain protest by naked woman on reclaimed land" (accessed 22/06/2015)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [4] Talk Vietnam online (31/05/2012): "Police slap fine on nude land protestor" (accessed 22/06/2015)<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Naked protests</strong> Source:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>naked protests and evictions</strong> Source:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Project</strong> Source:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Project plan</strong> Source:<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>A. Scheidel (ICTA-UAB) / arnim "dot" scheidel "at" gmail "dot" com</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>25/06/2015</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>