Environmental threats (industrial salmon, new mining concessions) in Chiloé, Chile

Threats in 2016 to environment and local livelihoods by the contaminating salmon industry and by new mining concessions in Chiloé.

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">In 2016 the archipelago of Chiloé lives its worst socioambiental crisis because of the consolidation of an extractivist model that plunders and robs natural and social commons. The two main issues are the salmon crisis and the new mining concessions. The crisis has become public knowledge and has created unprecedented environmental activism because of the damage from the industrial salmon industry together with multiple concessions for the mining industry beyond the traditional local exploitation of peat and "pompon". There are also conflicts on deforestation and on wind energy. One of the main protagonists are the Huilichi (Wilichi) people.           Chiloé, at the south of Chile, has been ransacked by the salmon farming industry, by forestal monocultures, by the proliferation of t wind energy, by the privatization of large areas for luxury tourism, by centralist imposition of megaprojects and by the current expansion of mining exploration concessions. This new mining threat materializes with the presence of 310 concessions in Chiloe; 209 of exploration and 101 of explotation, that, if citizens do not imposse a democratic management of their territory, can generate very serious environmental, social and economic impacts. Chiloé is an overexploited archipelago, therefore, Chiloe´s community are starting to search defense strategies for territorial resistance against the extractive model . Regarding the salmon crisis, OLCA and Manuexpres write that "la Dirección General del Territorio Marítimo y de Marina Mercante y el Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura (Sernapesca) del estado chileno autorizaron durante marzo del año 2016 la descarga de desechos salmoneros por 9 mil toneladas, hechos que no son considerados como aislados y que estarían relacionados con la mortandad de peces, bivalvos, lobos marinos entre otras múltiples especies marinas en las costas del archipiélago de Chiloé durante abril del 2016 y hasta lo que va en el presente del mes de mayo de 2016".  There is resistance by many groups. OLCA and Manuexpres reported that "en virtud de una reciente comunicación a la Relatora ONU sobre derechos de los Pueblos Indígenas, Victoria Tauli – Corpuz, el Consejo de Comunidades Williche de Chiloé señaló que se hace indispensable que se establezcan medidas y mecanismos de reparación ante la severa contaminación marítima causada por la industria salmonera que debe ser bajo la participación directa y activa de las comunidades Williche de Chiloé y zonas aledañas en la Región de los Lagos, que consideren las prioridades en materia de desarrollo y medios de subsistencia que señala la Declaración ONU y el Convenio 169 ... Cabe señalar que en diversas zonas se mantienen movilizaciones entre protestas, cortes de ruta y manifestaciones, como ocurre en Quemchi, Ancud, Quellón dentro de Chiloé; y asimismo lugares como Pargua en las inmediaciones. Delegaciones multisectoriales de Ancud y también de diversas comunidades Williche del archipiélago, encabezadas por el lonko Cristian Chiguay arribaron a Puerto Montt a manifestarse ". </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Environmental threats (industrial salmon, new mining concessions) in Chiloé, Chile</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/chile">Chile</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Chiloé</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Island of Chiloé</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>MEDIUM regional level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Aquaculture and fisheries<br /> Deforestation<br /> Windmills<br /> Mineral ore exploration</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/biological-resources'>Biological resources</a><br />Turba (peat) y Pompón (musgo Sphagnum), <br /><a href='/commodity/iron-ore'>Iron ore</a><br /><a href='/commodity/sand-gravel'>Sand, gravel</a><br /><a href='/commodity/copper'>Copper</a><br /><a href='/commodity/gold'>Gold</a><br /><a href='/commodity/fish'>Fish</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">We focus here on mining, leaving aside the salmon industry.</div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none">Mining concessions requested by mining speculators: like María Teresa Cañas Pinochet or Juan José Quijano Fernández. Beaches that have iron and gold concentrations and other ores that can be exploited. Similarly highlights the presence of the Australian mining company South American Iron & Steel, whose Chilean subsidiaries are Inversiones Arenas Claras Ltda., Inversiones Aconcagua Ltda. And Inversiones Arenas Maullín Ltda. Those seeking to start mining projects in the area Dunas de Putú (Maule region), Chañaral (Atacama region), Maullín and Guapilacuy, Ancud (Chiloé).<br/><br/>Mining concessions for resource Peat (Turba), located inside the big island of Chiloe. This is particularly serious because peat are the most important water reservoirs of Chiloé. They constitute unique ecosystems formed by a continuous surface matrix Sphagnum mosses (pompom) on a deep layer of organic matter or turba. Industrial exploitation of turba peat mining concession is one of the main factors that have Chiloé under deep water crisis.<br/><br/>Wind energy companies have applied for huge tracts of mining concessions in order not to have problems when installing transmission lines on land any strategy already used by hydroelectric companies as Hidroaysén and other energy investments throughout the country.<br/><br/>Now in Chiloé are several consessions. One of them is take by Global Gold Corporation (http://www.globalgoldcorp.com/news/2007/Closes-Chilean-Acquisition-Valdivia-Commence-Production), and to clarify with an example, as they say at their web: “The Chiloe Gold-Platinum Project is at an early stage of exploration. There are numerous mineral showings distributed over 16 separate beaches. The Property consists of 24 groups of mineral claims, covering a total area of approximately 5,900 ha on the island of Chiloe. A number of studies have been carried out to estimate the volume and grade of mineralization at Chiloe in the past. The total volume of the mineralized sands is also reported to be in the order of 200 million cubic metres with an average gold grade ranging from 0.4 g Au/m3 to 15 g Au/m3, and an average platinum grade ranging from 0.2 g Pt/m3 to 4 g Pt/m3. The grades for iridium and osmium are reported to be in the order of 6% and the amount of magnetite in the sands is reported to be in excess of 200 kg/tonne. Key agreement terms for the Estrella del Sur and Chiloe projects required Global Gold to pay approximately $160,000 to cover government and license fees in exchange for an exclusive option until January 30, 2008 to review, explore, and form joint ventures on the properties. On or before January 31, 2008, at Global Gold's sole option, either or both of the properties shall be transferred to a new joint venture company (or two separate companies on the same terms). For both properties and in consideration for forming the joint venture, Global Gold shall pay 1,500,000 euros (or the Chilean peso equivalent) on the following schedule: 1. January 31, 2008, 250,000 euros; 2. July 31, 2008, 250,000 euros; 3. January 30 2009, 500,000 euros; and 4. July 31 2009, 500,000 euros”.<br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>unknown</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>100,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>01/05/2013</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/medinah-minerals'>Medinah Minerals </a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-states-of-america'><small>United States of America </small></a><br /><a href='/company/inversiones-arenas-claras-ltda-inversiones-aconcagua-ltda-and-inversiones-arenas-maullin-ltda'>Inversiones Arenas Claras Ltda., Inversiones Aconcagua Ltda. And Inversiones Arenas Maullín Ltda</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/australia'><small>Australia</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería http://www.sernageomin.cl/<br/><br/>Ministerio de Medio Ambiente<br/><br/>Ministerio de Minería<br/><br/>CORFO. Ministerio de Economía<br/><br/>Subsecretaría de turismo. Ministerio de Economía</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/global-gold-corporation'>Global Gold Corporation </a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Centro de estudios sociales de Chiloé http://centrodeestudioschil.wix.com/cesch <br/><br/>Centro de estudio y conservación del patrimonio natural. http://cecpan.org/<br/><br/>CasaLahual www.casalahual.cl<br/><br/>Ecoocéanos http://ecooceanos.blogspot.cl/<br/><br/>Fundacion Terram<br/><br/>OLCA</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LOW (some local organising)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Fishermen<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities<br /> Social movements<br /> Ethnically/racially discriminated groups<br /> Local scientists/professionals</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Dissemination of information</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Soil erosion<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Desertification/Drought, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>Pollution of the sea, potential damage to whales and other marine life.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Planned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Under negotiation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Chilean constitution must change, a real change with a new constitution. The hope is there. There is no environmental justice, as shown in the double crisis in Chiloé - in the salmon industry and because of mining concessions (and also deforestation, tree monocultures and development of wind energy by outside companies). </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>If large scale mining arrives, it will deprive the population of its territory. Also, people making a living from the sea, and marine live itself, is being damaged by the salmon faming industry.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Infraestructura de datos geoespaciales. IDE Chile. Geoportal de Chile. Visor de Mapas<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.geoportal.cl/Visor/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Sernageomin. Catastro de concesiones mineras.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://catastro.sernageomin.cl/map.phtml?config=518" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Fundación Terram. Extracciones mineras alertan ONGs locales<br/><a class="refanch small" href=" http://www.terram.cl/2015/06/12/concesiones-mineras-alertan-a-ongs-locales/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Diario el insular. Visibilizan el impacto que la minería industrial podría tener en Chiloe<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.elinsular.cl/papeldigital/#/6/7" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Mondaca, E. Morfología del saqueo: el silencioso avance de la minería en Chiloé.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.mapuexpress.org/?p=2842" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Radio del Mar. Entrevista a A. Montaña. Chiloé sufre ataque extractivista: ahora está siendo invadido por concesiones mineras<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.radiodelmar.cl/2015/09/chiloe-sufre-ataque-extractivista-ahora-esta-siendo-invadido-por-concesiones-mineras/#" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Centro de estudios sociales de Chiloé. Facebook<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.facebook.com/Centro-de-Estudios-Sociales-de-Chilo%C3%A9-CESCH-1507235036167576/?fref=ts" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Report on the salmon crisis, May 2016, by Fundación Terram<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.terram.cl/2016/05/21/declaracion-publica-frente-a-desastre-socioambiental-en-chiloe/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Report of economist Christopher Toledo on the salmon crisis, in the newspaper El Mostrador, May 2019<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.terram.cl/2016/05/19/sacrificando-chiloe-por-la-produccion-salmonera/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Videos in 2016 of meetings in Chiloé regarding mining concessions.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.resumenlatinoamericano.org/2016/06/21/chile-chiloe-no-quiere-explotacion-minera-en-el-territorio/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Comunicado del Frente anti-minería que al mismo tiempo explica la crisis por la contaminación de salmoneras, 5 mayo 2016<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.nelsonquichillao.cl/blog/2016/05/05/el-sur-se-vuelve-un-huracan/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Chiloé protesta ante el Palacio de La Moneda</strong> <br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/chiloe-protesta-moneda4.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Comments</td><td>As this is an "incipient" conflict, there is no much information yet.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Máster en Gestión Fluvial Sostenible y Gestión Integrada de Aguas, Asignatura ‘Ecología política y  gestión de Aguas</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>14/07/2016</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>