Environmental threats (industrial salmon, new mining concessions) in Chiloé, Chile

Threats in 2016 to environment and local livelihoods by the contaminating salmon industry and by new mining concessions in Chiloé.


Description
In 2016 the archipelago of Chiloé lives its worst socioambiental crisis because of the consolidation of an extractivist model that plunders and robs natural and social commons. The two main issues are the salmon crisis and the new mining concessions. The crisis has become public knowledge and has created unprecedented environmental activism because of the damage from the industrial salmon industry together with multiple concessions for the mining industry beyond the traditional local exploitation of peat and "pompon". There are also conflicts on deforestation and on wind energy. One of the main protagonists are the Huilichi (Wilichi) people.           Chiloé, at the south of Chile, has been ransacked by the salmon farming industry, by forestal monocultures, by the proliferation of t wind energy, by the privatization of large areas for luxury tourism, by centralist imposition of megaprojects and by the current expansion of mining exploration concessions. This new mining threat materializes with the presence of 310 concessions in Chiloe; 209 of exploration and 101 of explotation, that, if citizens do not imposse a democratic management of their territory, can generate very serious environmental, social and economic impacts. Chiloé is an overexploited archipelago, therefore, Chiloe´s community are starting to search defense strategies for territorial resistance against the extractive model . Regarding the salmon crisis, OLCA and Manuexpres write that "la Dirección General del Territorio Marítimo y de Marina Mercante y el Servicio Nacional de Pesca y Acuicultura (Sernapesca) del estado chileno autorizaron durante marzo del año 2016 la descarga de desechos salmoneros por 9 mil toneladas, hechos que no son considerados como aislados y que estarían relacionados con la mortandad de peces, bivalvos, lobos marinos entre otras múltiples especies marinas en las costas del archipiélago de Chiloé durante abril del 2016 y hasta lo que va en el presente del mes de mayo de 2016".  There is resistance by many groups. OLCA and Manuexpres reported that "en virtud de una reciente comunicación a la Relatora ONU sobre derechos de los Pueblos Indígenas, Victoria Tauli – Corpuz, el Consejo de Comunidades Williche de Chiloé señaló que se hace indispensable que se establezcan medidas y mecanismos de reparación ante la severa contaminación marítima causada por la industria salmonera que debe ser bajo la participación directa y activa de las comunidades Williche de Chiloé y zonas aledañas en la Región de los Lagos, que consideren las prioridades en materia de desarrollo y medios de subsistencia que señala la Declaración ONU y el Convenio 169 ... Cabe señalar que en diversas zonas se mantienen movilizaciones entre protestas, cortes de ruta y manifestaciones, como ocurre en Quemchi, Ancud, Quellón dentro de Chiloé; y asimismo lugares como Pargua en las inmediaciones. Delegaciones multisectoriales de Ancud y también de diversas comunidades Williche del archipiélago, encabezadas por el lonko Cristian Chiguay arribaron a Puerto Montt a manifestarse ".
Basic Data
NameEnvironmental threats (industrial salmon, new mining concessions) in Chiloé, Chile
CountryChile
ProvinceChiloé
SiteIsland of Chiloé
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Aquaculture and fisheries
Deforestation
Windmills
Mineral ore exploration
Specific CommoditiesBiological resources
Turba (peat) y Pompón (musgo Sphagnum),
Iron ore
Sand, gravel
Copper
Gold
Fish
Project Details and Actors
Project Details
We focus here on mining, leaving aside the salmon industry.
See more...
Level of Investment (in USD)unknown
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population100,000
Start Date01/05/2013
Company Names or State EnterprisesMedinah Minerals from United States of America
Inversiones Arenas Claras Ltda., Inversiones Aconcagua Ltda. And Inversiones Arenas Maullín Ltda from Australia
Relevant government actorsServicio Nacional de Geología y Minería http://www.sernageomin.cl/

Ministerio de Medio Ambiente

Ministerio de Minería

CORFO. Ministerio de Economía

Subsecretaría de turismo. Ministerio de Economía
International and Financial InstitutionsGlobal Gold Corporation
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersCentro de estudios sociales de Chiloé http://centrodeestudioschil.wix.com/cesch

Centro de estudio y conservación del patrimonio natural. http://cecpan.org/

CasaLahual www.casalahual.cl

Ecoocéanos http://ecooceanos.blogspot.cl/

Fundacion Terram

OLCA
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)LOW (some local organising)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Fishermen
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Ethnically/racially discriminated groups
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationCreation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Dissemination of information
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Soil erosion
Potential: Desertification/Drought, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity
OtherPollution of the sea, potential damage to whales and other marine life.
Health ImpactsPotential: Accidents, Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution
Socio-economic ImpactsPotential: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Outcome
Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseUnder negotiation
Development of AlternativesChilean constitution must change, a real change with a new constitution. The hope is there. There is no environmental justice, as shown in the double crisis in Chiloé - in the salmon industry and because of mining concessions (and also deforestation, tree monocultures and development of wind energy by outside companies).
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.If large scale mining arrives, it will deprive the population of its territory. Also, people making a living from the sea, and marine live itself, is being damaged by the salmon faming industry.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

Infraestructura de datos geoespaciales. IDE Chile. Geoportal de Chile. Visor de Mapas
[click to view]

Sernageomin. Catastro de concesiones mineras.
[click to view]

Links

Fundación Terram. Extracciones mineras alertan ONGs locales
[click to view]

Diario el insular. Visibilizan el impacto que la minería industrial podría tener en Chiloe
[click to view]

Mondaca, E. Morfología del saqueo: el silencioso avance de la minería en Chiloé.
[click to view]

Radio del Mar. Entrevista a A. Montaña. Chiloé sufre ataque extractivista: ahora está siendo invadido por concesiones mineras
[click to view]

Media Links

Centro de estudios sociales de Chiloé. Facebook
[click to view]

Report on the salmon crisis, May 2016, by Fundación Terram
[click to view]

Report of economist Christopher Toledo on the salmon crisis, in the newspaper El Mostrador, May 2019
[click to view]

Videos in 2016 of meetings in Chiloé regarding mining concessions.
[click to view]

Comunicado del Frente anti-minería que al mismo tiempo explica la crisis por la contaminación de salmoneras, 5 mayo 2016
[click to view]

Other Documents

Chiloé protesta ante el Palacio de La Moneda
[click to view]

Other CommentsAs this is an "incipient" conflict, there is no much information yet.
Meta Information
ContributorMáster en Gestión Fluvial Sostenible y Gestión Integrada de Aguas, Asignatura ‘Ecología política y  gestión de Aguas
Last update14/07/2016
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