New Yogyakarta International Airport (NYIA), Java, Indonesia

Farmers resist against eviction for New Yogyakarta International Airport (NYIA) since 2011. NYIA is not just an airport infrastructure but an aerotropolis, i.e. recreational, business, residencial and industrial areas


Description

Kulon Progo is allocated on the southern coastal area of ​​Yogyakarta Province. This place is one of nature's most important reserves in Java. This area is included in the list of 14 sand dunes in the world that have special functions as reducing the danger of tsunami threat, intrusion prevention or seawater infiltration to groundwater layer, and inhibit erosion of coastal land by waves. Moreover, since the 1980s, this area has been allocated to agriculture economies as the way of life of the surrounding residents. However this coast region is interested by extractive project investments too: iron sand mining, infrastructure and tourism [9, 10].  The government has revealed plans to develop surrounding areas of Borobudur temple in Magelang regency, Central Java as new tourist destinations, including Bener district, Salaman and Tritis [4]. In order to develop tourism, a new international airport for Yogyakarta was announced in 2011. This way, touristic routes will take people to new tourist destinations and then to the well known Borobudur temple (Buddhist stupa and temple complex in Central Java dating back to the 8th century and listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site). Moreover, in 2017, it was also announced that the overall plan was including not only the airport but also a city surrounding the airport with entertainment venues, hotels, other infrastructure and mining industries. 

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Basic Data
NameNew Yogyakarta International Airport (NYIA), Java, Indonesia
CountryIndonesia
ProvinceJava
SiteKulon progo, Yogyakarta
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Ports and airport projects
Transport infrastructure networks (roads, railways, hydroways, canals and pipelines)
Tourism facilities (ski resorts, hotels, marinas)
Specific CommoditiesLand
Tourism services
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsIndonesia already has 237 airports and between 2010 and 2015 passenger numbers tripled to reach 88.7 million. The International Air Transport Association (IATA) projects continued aviation growth in Indonesia, anticipating 219 million passengers in 2034, the world’s fourth fastest growth rate after China, the US and India.

The Global Anti-Areotropolis Movement (GAAM) reports revealed [2,9,10] that this project is part of the national Master Plan for the Acceleration and Expansion of Indonesian Economic Development (MP3EI). The MP3EI Mega project, which was launched in 2011, contains a package of developments that encompass Indonesia into 6 areas / corridors of new capital-intensive industrialization projects. MP3EI planed Java Island as a national industrial and service area. Especially for Yogyakarta, MP3EI documents position it as one of the MICE (Meeting, Incentive, Convention, Exhibition) areas.

The Indonesian government is implementing a major aviation expansion programme which requires large amounts of state funding. In April 2015 the Ministry of Transportation announced a plan to build 57 new airports over the next five years, pledging to allocate US$5.5 billion for the projects [3].

Moreover, there are plans for commercial and industrial development around several airports: Juanda, Hang Nadim, Kuala Namu, Sultan Hasanuddin and Kertajati. Kulon Progo is one of them. All are potential examples of an emerging urban form known as the ‘aerotropolis’ [2].

According to Ankara Pura company, the Aerotropolis plan in Kulon Progo is made up of: Airport area (1200 Ha) ; area for recreation and Business (800Ha), Area for industry and residence (640 Ha); green and reserved area (1500Ha).

In the plan it is also included a future road that will connect the Aerotropolis with Yogyakarta center.
Project Area (in hectares)2,000
Level of Investment (in USD)500,000,000
Type of PopulationRural
Potential Affected Population11,501 directly under eviction threat or already displaced
Start Date2011
Company Names or State EnterprisesPT Angkasa Pura from Indonesia
GVK Power and Infractructure (GVK) from India - http://www.gvk.com
Relevant government actorsIndonesian Government, State Owner Enterprise (SOE), Army, Police, and Satpol PP, National Land Agency (BPN) in Kulon Progo Regency.
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersPaguyuban Warga Penolak Penggusuran Kulon Progo (PWPP-KP)

Wahana Tri Tunggal Farmers Organization (WTT)

https://wahanatritunggal.wordpress.com

Yogyakarta Legal Aid (LBH Yogyakarta)

Jogja Darurat Agraria (https://www.facebook.com/jdagraria/)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Local ejos
Social movements
Women
Students
Fisher people
Forms of MobilizationArtistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Blockades
Development of a network/collective action
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Land occupation
Media based activism/alternative media
Objections to the EIA
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Strikes
Refusal of compensation
Groups of students protect the houses to avoid evicted, clean and protect religious places, put the Indonesian shield in the houses as it's forbidden by government to touch that symbol.
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Desertification/Drought, Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Soil contamination, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsPotential: Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession
Potential: Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment
Outcome
Project StatusUnder construction
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCompensation
Criminalization of activists
Migration/displacement
Repression
Strengthening of participation
Do you consider this as a success?No
Sources and Materials
Legislations

UUPA/ Undang-undang Pokok Agrarian Tahun 1960

References

[9] Rose Bridger (GAAM) Courageous resistance to forced eviction for New Yogyakarta International Airport
[click to view]

[10] GAAM: Resisting Kulon Progo Airport – inspirational artwork. September 4, 2017
[click to view]

[14] PANGGILAN SOLIDARITAS. MENDUKUNG PERJUANGAN PETANI KULON PROGO MELAWAN BANDARA KOTA BANDARA. (SOLIDARITY CALLS FOR KULONG PROGO FARMERS AGAINST AIRPORT AND AIRPORT CITY). 18/12/2017

[13] SHADOW REPORT ON THE SITUATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS IN INDONESIA (2012-2016)
[click to view]

[2] Rose Bridger. 2017. Aviation expansion in Indonesia Aerotropolis Update Tourism, land struggles, economic zones and aerotropolis projects
[click to view]

Pramilla Deva. 2018. Flight-path farmers pushed out
[click to view]

Links

[16] AP I: Pembangunan Bandara NYIA Kulon Progo Tetap Sesuai Target
[click to view]

[11] Protesters to Stop Jokowi from Groundbreaking Yogya New Airport
[click to view]

[15] Delapan Investor Perhotelan Sudah Tancap Taring di Temon
[click to view]

[7] Kulon Progo airport development violates human rights: Komnas Ham.2015.
[click to view]

[13] Islands in focus: Hunger strike over Kulon Progo airport continues
[click to view]

GVK India to invest US500 million in the development of Kulon Progo Airport
[click to view]

[6] Perjalanan perjuangan masyarakat Pesisir Kulon Progo dalam menolak pembangunan bandara.2015
[click to view]

[17] PWPP-KP: Mau Saja Ditemui, Asal Bukan Soal Bandara
[click to view]

[4] Govt to develop new tourist destinations around Borobudur.2016.
[click to view]

[8] INDONESIA: Police and Army attack residents protesting airport expansion. Asian Human Rights Commission.2016
[click to view]

[3] Construction of 57 New Airports to Start in the Next 5 Years. 2015
[click to view]

[14] Hasto: Warga Penolak Bandara Diprovokasi Orang Luar. 15/1/2018
[click to view]

[17] Hasto Siap Tawarkan Lahan Pertanian 10 Hektare untuk Warga Penolak Bandara
[click to view]

[5] Perjuangan WTT Kulon Progo (Kulon Progo's struggle)
[click to view]

Media Links

Jogja Darurat Agraria
[click to view]

Against the Construction of Kulon Progo International Airport, Indonesia
[click to view]

GAAM (Global Anti-aereotropolis Movement)
[click to view]

[8] Infrastructure Development in Indonesia - Yogyakarta International Airport. #Jogja Darurat Agraria.
[click to view]

[12] News: Yogyakarta Residents Protest Airport Construction
[click to view]

[9] BERITA WARGA "Jangan lagi ada warga se-DIY ini yang digusur, diusir, berduka karena harus kehilangan ruang hidup dan penghidupannya" - #JogjaDaruratAgraria
[click to view]

Solar panels as alternative to elecricity
[click to view]

Other Documents

Local campaigns against NYIA. Banner of Women Struggle fight against airport city. Source: https://antiaero.org/tag/kulon-progo-airport/
[click to view]

Source: Carmen Díaz As a mobilization strategy the protester put the Indonesian shield in the houses as it's forbidden by government to touch that symbol. Dec 2017
[click to view]

Source: Carmen Díaz House resists of evicting and it is protected by a group of students. Dec 2017
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorICTA-UAB and Global Anti-Aerotropolis Movement (GAAM) https://antiaero.org/
Last update22/03/2018
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