International Minerals Corporation (IMC) in Molleturo, Ecuador

Description
The mining project Rio Blanco is one of the five so-called mining strategic projects located in the parishes of Molleturo and Chaucha. It consists of a highly fragile ecosystem, high wetlands or Paramos, in the transition zone of Cajas National Park and is an important source of water for agriculture and human consumption within the province as well as for populations living in the southern coast provinces. The project is contracted to the Canadian firm IMC since 1999. Previously, in the mid-1990s, the transnational mining company Rio Tinto had conducted early exploration works. In that time local inhabitants had already stated their opposition to mining activity despite experiencing internal divisions. IMC carried out further exploration works until 2006, the year in which it published its positive feasibility study. From 2006 until 2008 local opposition grew at the same time that a nationwide anti-miming movement was emerging. In 2008 the constitutional mining mandate was issued, that should have meant the revokation of IMCs contract as it overlaps with a protected forest as well as a buffer zone. This however did not happen as president Correa is strongly in favour of mining activities. Currently, the government is negotiating the terms of the contract with IMC amidst ongoing local protest.

Basic Data
NameInternational Minerals Corporation (IMC) in Molleturo, Ecuador
CountryEcuador
ProvinceAzuay
SiteMolleturo
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Mineral ore exploration
Specific CommoditiesSilver
Gold
Project Details and Actors
Project Details
The Rio Blanco project consists of four mining concessions (San Luis A2, Miguir, Canoas and Canoas I. The mining design is an underground mining operation.
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Project Area (in hectares)5799
Level of Investment (in USD)120000000
Type of PopulationRural
Start Date2004
Company Names or State EnterprisesSan Luis Minerals S.A./Internacional Minerals Corporation (IMC) from Canada
Relevant government actorsEcuadorian government, Parish of Molleturo., The Ecuadorian National Secretariat for Planning and Development-SENPLADES, The Ministry of Mines and Petroleum (now the Ministry of Non-Renewable Natural Resources)., Environmental Ministry, Agencia Agua de Cuenca- Consejo Nacional de Recursos Hidricos
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersCoordinadora Nacional por la Defensa de la Vida y la Soberania-CNDVS (National Coordinating Committee for the Defense of Life and Sovereignty)., Accion Ecologica, Comision Ecumenica de Derechos Humanos-CEDHU (The Ecumenical Human Rights Commission), Ombudsman
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Women
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Official complaint letters and petitions
Strikes
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems
Socio-economic ImpactsPotential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Militarization and increased police presence, Specific impacts on women, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Outcome
Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCriminalization of activists
Repression
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.The government is following its own interests without taking into consideration the local inhabitants opinions and willingness.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

Ecuadorian Constitution

Mining Law

Mining mandate

The Code of territorial Organization

References

Gowans, Richard M., Paul Gribble C. Eng., Malcolm Buck P.Eng. 2006. Technical report on the Alejandra north vein Rio Blanco gold and silver project feasibility study, Ecuador. Micon International Limited. In: (last accessed in April 5, 2012).
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Sacher, William and Alberto Acosta. 2012. La minera a gran escala en el Ecuador. Anlisis y datos estadsticos sobre la minera industrial en el Ecuado. Abya-Yala-Universisad Politecnica Salesiana. 2012.

Latorre, Sara. 2009. El ecologismo popular. Pasado y Presente. IEE-FLACSO.

Links

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Meta Information
ContributorSara Latorre
Last update08/04/2014
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