Jiew Kang Jue Pattana oil palm company, Thailand

Systematic pattern of targeting human rights defenders for their work in fighting against palm oil companies in Surat Thani province.

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">A palm oil company  has illegally occupied the community’s lands for the past 30 years after the expiry of their lease. In 2007, the Agricultural Land Reform Office (ALRO) filed a civil law suit against the Jiew Kang Jue Pattana Co. Ltd company on behalf of the community to evict the company from the land. The Supreme Court upheld the civil law suit and ruled against the company in November 2014 [2].  Still, the ALRO has failed to execute the court order and to expel the private company from the land. No land was redistributed among the peasants. Instead, they issued an order on 6 July 2015 to forcibly push the private company and their workers as well as villagers from the Klong Sai Pattana Community from the land claiming the villagers were employees of the company. But according to the verdict of the Court, dependents do not include villagers in Klong Sai Pattana Community who had been living there as farmers and were in dire need of land. The villagers said that they "had no intent to commercialize it". The land was redistributed based on collective land title deed regime, not based on conventional individual ownership [3].  A former National Human Rights Commissioner said that successive governments have failed to solve land management issues. The ALRO should have as its main aim to redistribute the land for the most destitute. Since the conflict escalated, Jiew Kang Jue Pattana Co. Ltd. has filed several suits against Southern Peasant’s Federation of Thailand (SPFT) members. This Peasant's Federarion was campaigning for community land tenure in an ongoing dispute with a company. The company argues that its campaigns are affecting the company's business interests.  According to the International Protection, in the struggle, more than ten human rights defenders, were murdered. From 2010 to 2015 there were four registered activists murders. They were members of SPFT Federation and from the Kholong Sai Pattana community in Surat province:  In 2010, <b>Somporn Pattanaphum</b>, a land rights activist was killed in 2010. In 2012 <b>Montha Chukaew and Pranee Boonrat</b> women activists were killed on 11 February 2015, <b>Chai Bunthonglek  (</b><b>61 year old) </b>was shot and killed by two unidentified assailants.<b> </b>All of them were<b> </b>members of the Southern Peasant’s Federation of Thailand (SPFT) from the Khlong Sai Pattana community in Surat Thani. Chai is the fourth human rights defender working on land rights in southern Thailand to be killed in 2014. According to the International Service for Human Rights (ISHR) there is a  clear systematic pattern of "targeting human rights defenders for their work in holding businesses accountable in Thailand". "This series of such killings in southern Thailand which are carried out in order to intimidate those seeking to protect their right to land and expose illegal activities of private enterprises”, said Michael Ineichen from ISHR [1]. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Jiew Kang Jue Pattana oil palm company, Thailand</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/thailand">Thailand</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Surat Thani</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Khlong Sai Pattana community </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Biomass and Land Conflicts (Forests, Agriculture and Livestock Management)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Land acquisition conflicts<br /> Plantation conflicts (incl. Pulp</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/palm-oil'>Palm oil</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">In 2008. 146,441 hectares were covered by oil palm in Sarat Thani province (OAE 2008: 27), 20.2 yield per hectare [4].</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>216,500</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/jiew-kang-jue-pattana-co-ltd'>Jiew Kang Jue Pattana Co. Ltd.</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/thailand'><small>Thailand</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Agricultural Land Reform Office (ALRO)<br/><br/>The Royal Thai government<br/><br/>Land Bank Administration Institute</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Southern Peasant’s Federation of Thailand (SPFT)<br/><br/>People’s Movement for Just Society (P-Move)<br/><br/>Asian Forum for Human Rights and Development (FORUM-ASIA), Amnesty International (AI)<br/><br/>Northeast Land Reform Network, <br/><br/>the Northern Peasant Federation, <br/><br/>the Assembly of the Poor, <br/><br/>Human Rights Lawyers Association (HRLA), <br/><br/>the People’s Movement for a Just Society (P-Move), <br/><br/>the Pa Sang Agricultural Cooperative for Community Land Title Deed, <br/><br/>the Network for Social and Political Reform, <br/><br/>the Network for Natural Resource and the Environment Management in Andaman, <br/><br/>the Khao Lao Yai-Pha Jandai Conservation Group,<br/><br/>Southern Peasant Federation Cooperative <br/><br/>Observatory for the Protection of Human Rights Defenders <br/><br/>Protection International (PI)</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Indigenous groups or traditional communities<br /> Local ejos<br /> Social movements<br /> Women<br /> Khlong Sai Pattana community</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Soil contamination, Soil erosion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Criminalization of activists<br /> Deaths<br /> Court decision (victory for environmental justice)<br /> Violent targeting of activists<br /> Somporn Pattanaphum, a land rights activist was killed in 2010; In 2012 Montha Chukaew and Pranee Boonrat women activists were killed On 11 February 2015, Chai Bunthonglek (61 year old), a member of the Southern Peasant’s Federation of Thailand (SPFT)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>A community land title deed with representatives of different networks and organizations.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Still, the ALRO has failed to execute the court order and to expel the private company from the land. No land was redistributed among the peasants. The violence has increased against the activist in opposition.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> The Land Readjustment Act of 2004: governs processes for land re-plotting and development in order to improve land utilisation.<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Agricultural Land Reform Act of 1975: aims to address the high rate <br />of tenancy in certain regions of the country, the large number of landless <br />households, and the encroachment of public lands for cultivation<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Land Development Act of 1983: established a national Land Development Committee to improve the use and productivity of the country‘s agricultural <br />land.<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> [1] Thailand: Ensure independent, impartial investigation into murder of land rights activists<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.ishr.ch/news/thailand-ensure-independent-impartial-investigation-murder-land-rights-activists" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Effects of oil palm expansion through direct and indirect land use change in Tapi river basin, Thailand, 2016<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/21513732.2016.1193560?needAccess=true" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [4] Oil palm expansion in South East Asia<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.forestpeoples.org/sites/fpp/files/publication/2011/11/oil-palm-expansion-southeast-asia-2011-low-res.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> NYT: Murdered afer defending Thailand's environment<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2016/05/22/blogs/murdered-after-defending-thailands-environment/s/22thailandmydans-slide-V7GD.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [2] Southern land rights activist shot dead<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.prachatai.com/english/node/4780" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Thailand: Joint Statement: End Impunity and Ensure Justice for Community under Attack<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.omct.org/human-rights-defenders/statements/thailand/2016/02/d23614/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> [3] SURAT THANI PEASANTS COMMEMORATE DEFENDERS WHO DIED TO DEFEND LAND RIGHTS. A STATEMENT BY THE SOUTHERN PEASANT FEDERATION OF THAILAND.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://protectionline.org/2015/09/30/thailand-opening-ceremony-memorial-defenders-rights-peasants-statement-spft/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Source:Luke Duggleby/Redux, http://www.nytimes.com/slideshow/2016/05/22/blogs/murdered-after-defending-thailands-environment/s/22thailandmydans-slide-V7GD.html</strong> Montha Chukaew, 54, and Pranee Boonrat, 50, activists, were shot and killed on Nov. 19, 2012.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/22thailandmydans-slide-V7GD-superJumbo.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>SM (ICTA-UAB) and Carros de Combate</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>06/02/2017</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>