Air pollution from Jugohrom-Jegunovce, Macedonia

Jugohrom Ferroalloys demonstrated little willingness to introduce environmental measures and reduced air pollution, which is why experts and CSOs demanded from the government to temporary close the factory and put more pressures on its management.


<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">Jugohrom Ferroalloys DOO Jegunovce (previously a state owned company Silmak from 1952) is located in the Macedonian village Jegunovce, in the Region of Polog valley, around 10 km from the city of Tetovo. Jugohrom produces ferro-alloy, particularly ferro-silicon and is the main employer in Jegunovce. In 2010, the company was privatized by the Russian company Camelot Group. The company has a history of over 50 years of uncontrolled disposal of waste material containing chromium salts caused soil and groundwater pollution, including the River Vardar, an important trans-boundary river. However the greatest environmental problem is extremely high air pollution. As identified by experts and NGO activists, Jugohrom contributes almost 99% to the total air pollution in the Polog region. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards, the concentration of particulate matters PM10 is eight times higher than permitted limits, and more than ten times in the winter, causing respiratory infections, heart disease, stroke, cancer and death. The inhabitants of the region are worried about their health and their agricultural production, while Tetovo is declared one of the most polluted towns in Macedonia. The air pollution was confirmed in measurements by The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning, however this actor argues that industry is only the third biggest source after transport and heating. Macedonia became a candidate member of the European Union in 2005. Since then, it made some changes in the Law on Environment as part of the EU access environment reforms, including the measure of making polluters meet environmental standards (until the 1st of April 2014), in order to get the integrated environmental permit A. In the case of Jugohrom this requirement included the installation of air filters. During the past nine years Jugohrom has requested several deadline extensions, stating as explanation the effects the economic crisis had on its production. Namely, in 2012 Jugohrom had to close 4 out of 6 furnaces and lay off 400 workers. The Macedonian government has been accepting these excuses, due to the importance of the metallurgy industry to the country’s economy. In the meantime The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning adopted several plans and strategies to reduce the level of air pollution, such as the Third National Plan on Climate Change in December 2013. On the 1st of April 2014, once again Jugohrom did not manage to meet the deadline, however the company was granted with 6 more months to do so (until the 31st of October). In July 2014, Liljana Popovska, a parliamentarian and representative of DOM- The Democratic Renewal Party of Macedonia (a green political party) sent an official criminal charge against Jugohrom to the city of Tetovo's court. This charge was a result of years of unwillingness of Jugohrom's management to introduce environmental measures, even though the investment in filters would take only 1% of its total profit. Mrs Popovska expressed the fear that Jugohrom does not have any intention of changing the situation, and that the company plans to eventually close the factory and leave with the profit. There is no information on the case so far. Even though the Minister of Environment has promised to close down the factory by the 31st of October 2014, Jugohrom has been given yet another deadline prolongation for two more years, as according to the Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs the company has already met 21 out of 29 requirements. During the next two years the company will keep working with 50 % of its production capacity that should reduce the emissions of pollution by 60-70%. Closing down is not an option as it would leave 1,250 workers without jobs. Most of the workers have been hired under three-month contracts, while many of them have reported experiencing political pressures and being in fear for their jobs. Over the years NGO EcoGuerilla and citizens of Tetovo have organised many protests against Jugohrom. After the government's decision in November 2014 to grant the further extension, the citizens organised yet another protest emphasizing that they do not want the factory to be closed, but that the government put maximum pressure on the company to install filters and reduce pollution immediately, particularly since Jugohrom have been operating with a profit in last few years. In October 2015, the Ministry of Environment announced closing the factory for not obeying rules. In January 2016, Jugohrom voluntarily shut down operations for two months with aim of decreasing air pollution in Tetovo. NGO Eco Guerrilla said that closing Jugohrom had positive results to air quality in the city. Namely, according to the measurements made by the country's environment ministry, the PM10 emissions in February 2016 decreased by 41% when compared with the levels measured in February 2015. For this reasons, Eco Guerrilla finds unjustified the plant reopening before all environmental standards are met. However, the workers of Jugohrom think differently and state that the air pollution level in Tetovo remain high despite of the plant closure. The factory relaunched production in March 2016. According to Jugohrom management, the installation of de-dusting equipment will be completed until the end of October 2016.  </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Air pollution from Jugohrom-Jegunovce, Macedonia</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/macedonia-fyr">Macedonia, FYR</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>The Region of Polog </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Municipality of Jegunovce and Tearce, city of Tetovo</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Industrial and Utilities conflicts</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Metal refineries</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/steel'>Steel</a><br />ferro-silicon, silicon–chrome, low carbon ferro-chrome and technical silicon </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">Produces up to 6 tonnes of ferro-silicon per month.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>2,417</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>300,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2005</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/jugohrom-ferroalloys-doo-jegunovce'>Jugohrom Ferroalloys DOO Jegunovce <small>(Jugohrom )</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/macedonia-fyr'><small>Macedonia, FYR</small></a> - <small>Polluter</small><br /><a href='/company/camelot-group'>Camelot Group</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/hong-kong-sar-china'><small>Hong Kong SAR, China</small></a> - <small>Owner of Jugohrom Ferroalloys DOO Jegunovce since 2010</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>The Government of Macedonia; The Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning of the Republic of Macedonia; The Ministry of Economy of the Republic of Macedonia</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>EcoGuerilla; The portal Portalb.mk; http://civil.org.mk/; citizens of Tetovo; DOM- The Democratic Renewal of Macedonia</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>Mobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> Industrial workers<br /> Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Artistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Street protest/marches</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Air pollution, Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Soil contamination, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Groundwater pollution or depletion</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Deaths, Other environmental related diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>Respiratory infections, heart disease, stroke and cancer.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Violations of human rights, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area<br /> Technical solutions to improve resource supply/quality/distribution<br /> Application of existing regulations<br /> Project temporarily suspended<br /> Prolongation of deadline to introduce environmental improvements; reduction of production capacity to 50%; voluntarily two-months closure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Experts, citizens and CSOs demanded from the government to temporarily close the factory and put pressure on the company to install filters and reduced pollution. The permanent closing of the factory is not an option as the large number of Jegunovce inhabitants work there.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>Not Sure</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Since the changes in the Environmental Law from 2005, the management of Jugohrom has not demonstrated willingness to introduce environmental measures. Instead, it has been asking for several deadline prolongations, while keeping the production on-going in order to keep the social peace. After a voluntary two-month closure in 2016, the factory resumed production in March 2016, while the ongoing work on installation of de-dusting equipment should be completed until the end of October 2016. </td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> The Law on Environmental Protection 2005<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.slvesnik.com.mk/Issues/ACF1AC118E6F81438BE8DD53D5A613F0.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> The Third National Plan on Climate Change in December 2013<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.unfccc.org.mk/content/Documents/TNC_MK_draft.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> The dangerous pollution of the Pollog region<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://scoop.mk/investigations/239.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Jugohrom Got New Deadline to Replace Filters After All<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.independent.mk/articles/10979/Jugohrom+Got+New+Deadline+to+Replace+Filters+After+All" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Protests as Macedonia's Government Gives a Polluting Factory in Tetovo Another Break<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://globalvoicesonline.org/2014/11/13/anti-pollution-protests-against-jugohrom-factory-in-tetovo-macedonia/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Дали македонската влада ќе им го скрати животот на нејзините граѓани? Will Macedonian government shorten the life of its citizens?<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://vistinomer.mk/dali-makedonskata-vlada-ke-im-go-skrati-zhivotot-ne-nejzinite-zhiteli/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Ndotja nuk ndalet, çdo vit 4.500 njerëz të rinj të sëmurë nga kanceri! - Pollution does not stop, each year 4,500 new people suffering from cancer!<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://portalb.mk/114245-ndotja-nuk-ndalet-cdo-vit-4-500-njerez-te-rinj-te-semure-nga-kanceri/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Nothing new about Liljana Popovska's accusations vs Jugohrom<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://mediatiku.com/en/heading/58-nothing-new-about-liljana-popovskas-accusations-vs-jugohrom" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> DOM party: Tetovo and Bitola remain polluted, Skoplje is saved<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://english.republika.mk/?p=133315" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> DOM party request a meeting with polluters Makstil and Jugohrom<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://english.republika.mk/?p=123712" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Macedonia's Jugohrom Ferroalloys halves output to cut gas emissions - govt<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://wire.seenews.com/news/macedonias-jugohrom-ferroalloys-halves-output-to-cut-gas-emissions-govt-446429" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Jugohrom ugasion cetiri peci, 400 ljudi ostalo bez posla<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.energyobserver.com/vesti.php?lang=1&ID=36266" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Macedonia’s Jugohrom Ferroalloys Closes Four Furnaces - Media<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://wire.seenews.com/news/macedonia-s-jugohrom-ferroalloys-closes-four-furnaces-media-208361" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Camelot has bought former Jugohrom plant<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.metalbulletin.com/Article/2699590/Camelot-has-bought-former-Jugohrom-plant.html#axzz3KSFSMCwr" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Jugohrom and Masktil to stop operations until meeting environmental standards<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://english.republika.mk/?p=131986" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> JUGOHROM employees testify party pressures, the Management denies<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://civil.org.mk/jugohrom-employees-testify-party-pressures-the-management-denies/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Protest in Tetovo: Citizens on the Street, They Want to Breathe Clean Air<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.independent.mk/articles/11187/Protest+in+Tetovo+Citizens+on+the+Street,+They+Want+to+Breathe+Clean+Air" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Facebook page EcoGuerilla: STOP ndotjes kancerogjene ne Tetove<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.facebook.com/ndotjatetove" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Zagaduvanje na vodite (Water pollution in Macedonia)<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.soros.org.mk/konkurs/077/zagaduvanjena-vodi.htm" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Можно ли е загадување на Рашче со шествалентен хром?<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://star.dnevnik.com.mk/default.aspx?pbroj=1402&stID=2147478935" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> "Југохром" се уште ги загадува Вардар и Бистрица<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://star.vest.com.mk/default.asp?id=77129&idg=4&idb=1146&rubrika=Makedonija" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> After Closing Jugohrom Plant, Air Pollution in Tetovo Decreased<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.independent.mk/articles/28288/After+Closing+Jugohrom+Plant,+Air+Pollution+in+Tetovo+Decreased" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Macedonia’s Jugohrom Ferroalloys plant relaunches production - report<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://wire.seenews.com/news/macedonia-s-jugohrom-ferroalloys-plant-relaunches-production-report-515399" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Macedonia: Jugohrom Smelter Will Close for Two Months to Improve Air Quality<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.independent.mk/articles/25834/Macedonia+Jugohrom+Smelter+Will+Close+for+Two+Months+to+Improve+Air+Quality" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Environment Minister: Jugohrom Fails to Make Progress on Eco-standards, Faces Closure<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.independent.mk/articles/22876/Environment+Minister+Jugohrom+Fails+to+Make+Progress+on+Eco-standards,+Faces+Closure" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Jugohrom shut down, but Pollution still the same in Tetovo<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://macedoniaonline.eu/content/view/28679/2/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Protest in Tetovo, January 2014<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://portalb.mk/27861-foto-video-tetovaret-bllokuan-rrugen-kunder-ndotjes/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Protest in Tetovo, December 2013<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://portalb.mk/28560-foto-video-tetove-u-protestua-kunder-ndotjes-se-ajrit/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> LILJANA POPOVSKA: AFTER TWO YEARS IN JUGOHROM THEY CAN TAKE THE PROFIT AND LEAVE<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://en.inbox7.mk/?p=1594" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Photos of the pollution from Jugohrom<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://www.demotix.com/news/5589903/environmental-issues-macedonia#media-5589750" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Protest in Tetovo, March 2014<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://portalb.mk/30007-video-para-zyres-se-abdilaqim-ademit-mbahet-protesta-kunder-ndotjes/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Los Angeles Times photography<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://framework.latimes.com/2014/11/07/the-week-in-pictures-204/#/5" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Mos Hesht! Video about air pollution in Tetovo made by Cr3w Production and Wilson school students<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FI3KMSryZsU#t=45" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Photos from the protests against Jugohrom<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://iconosquare.com/tag/jugohrom" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Pollution from Jugohrom Jegunovce<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H3qP4vIdlak" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> И без "Југохром" воздухот во Тетово е екстремно загаден<br/><a class="refanch small" href="http://kanal5.com.mk/vesti_detail.asp?ID=87691" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Documents</td><td><table><tr><td><p><strong>Tetovo protest </strong> Some of the slogans heard by the citizens of Tetovo were “Air for Tetovo" and "Tetovo – Say No to Carcinogenic Air"<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/protests-in-Tetovo-800x533.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p><strong>Protest in Tetovo</strong> A scene from the protest again Jugohrom<br/><a class="refanch small" href="https://file.ejatlas.org/docs/CO2_tetovo.jpg" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Jovanka Spiric, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, vankajo(at)gmail.com</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>23/05/2016</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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