Kali Gandaki Hydroelectric Project A, Nepal

Description

In 1997, Kali Gandaki Hydroelectric Project A began with the construction of a dam over the Kali Gandaki river. The dam was built by the Italian company Impregilo S.p.a (1). The project, worth an estimated US$420 million, was financed by the (ADB), the Japanese Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC), the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and the Finnish Development Agency (FINNIDA). Social movements and unions at both the local and national levels protested against the serious environmental and social impacts created by the project.

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Basic Data
NameKali Gandaki Hydroelectric Project A, Nepal
CountryNepal
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Water Management
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Deforestation
Dams and water distribution conflicts
Specific CommoditiesWater
Electricity

Land
Project Details and Actors
Project DetailsThe Kali Gandaki is a run-of-the-river project, with a capacity of 144 MW, 842 GWh of electricity annually, included a 44 meter high dam at Mirni, the confluence of the Kali Gandaki and Andi Khola rivers, as well as a 5,9 km tunnel to pipe water from these two rivers.

Project Area (in hectares)300
Level of Investment (in USD)420000000
Type of PopulationRural
Start Date1992
Company Names or State EnterprisesSacyr from Spain
Relevant government actorsNepalese Government, Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA)- Nepal
International and Financial InstitutionsAsian Development Bank (ADB)
Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) from Japan
Ministry of Foreign Affairs ヨ Development Cooperation (FINNIDA) from Finland
United Nations Development Programme (UNDP)
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersNational Nepalese Union, International Institute for Human Rights, Environment and Development Federation of Nepal, CIRA
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginIn REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Indigenous groups or traditional communities
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Forms of MobilizationOfficial complaint letters and petitions
Street protest/marches
Strikes
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover
Potential: Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Food insecurity (crop damage), Global warming, Soil contamination, Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion
Health ImpactsVisible: Accidents, Deaths
Potential: Malnutrition
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Violations of human rights
Outcome
Project StatusIn operation
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseMigration/displacement
Strengthening of participation
Development of AlternativesThe affected asked the Asian Development Bank to find alternative projects to the Kali Gandaki dam and its supply of electricity.
Do you consider this as a success?No
Why? Explain briefly.The dam and the hydro-power plant continue operating in Nepal.
Sources and Materials
References

Rajendra P. Thanju
[click to view]

Kali Gandaki ‘A’ Hydroelectric Project in Environmental Perspectives,

Links

(1)Impregilo project design
[click to view]

(2)World Bank
[click to view]

[click to view]

[click to view]

Big hydro, big hanky-panky?, by NAVIN SINGH KHADKA fro Nepali Times
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorLucie Greyl
Last update08/04/2014
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