Lake Turkana Wind Power Project, Kenya

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">In November 2006 collection of wind data for the Lake Turkana Wind Power project began, while discussions with the Kenya Government in 2009 culminated in signing a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with Kenya Power in January 2010. This was re-affirmed and signed in September 2011. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> An ESIA for the project was done in 2009, to which Nature Kenya objected due to lack of provision of detailed information about the project in the report which resulted in a broad nature of assessment of potential impacts on biodiversity and the environment in general. In spite of this, the ESIA was approved and a license issued in 2009. <br/><br/> The Government of Kenya signed the Letter of Support, which allows for the Lenders to complete their financial due diligence and documentation. In April 2013 The Board of Directors of the African Development Bank (AfDB) approved USD 149.5 million in financing of the project. In August 2013, the European Investment Bank board also approved 200M euros to help finance the project. AfDB approved an additional Euros 20M funding in October 2013. Implementation is set to begin in early 2014 although the road and transmission line construction will begin soon. <br/><br/> In May 2013 Nature Kenya wrote a letter to the EU investment bank stating its position on wind farms including the Lake Turkana Wind Farm project. The letter stated that Nature Kenya is not against wind development and recognizes that climate change poses a serious threat to people and biodiversity and that renewable energy can be part of the solution. However, renewable energy projects can themselves have environmental impacts. <br/><br/> Particularly, the Lake Turkana Wind Power is located along a birds’ migratory corridor and there are imminent dangers on migrating birds. Some of the major concerns were substantial modification of the project (from 100 to 365 turbines) since the original license was issued by NEMA in 2009. Lack of detailed information in the ESIA which results to unclear guidance on avian safe wind turbine placement and design. <br/><br/> Nature Kenya recommends among others development of the outline Environmental and Social Management Plans provided in the ESIA into detailed plans before funding decisions are taken. These should set out the mechanism by which adaptive management will be used to address any unforeseen impacts, or impacts, which are found to be more severe, than predicted. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Lake Turkana Wind Power Project, Kenya</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/kenya">Kenya</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Marsabit West County, North-eastern Kenya</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Loyangalani District, </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>MEDIUM regional level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Other<br /> Windmills</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /><a href='/commodity/electricity'>Electricity</a><br />Wind</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns"><div class="less">The Lake Turkana Wind Power Project (LTWP) aims to provide 300MW of reliable, low cost wind power to the Kenya national grid, equivalent to approximately 20% of the current installed electricity generating capacity. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> The wind farm site, covering 40,000 acres (162km2), is located in Loyangalani District, Marsabit West County, in north-eastern Kenya.The Project will comprise 365 wind turbines (each with a capacity of 850 kW), the associated overhead electric grid collection system and a high voltage substation. <br/><br/> The Project also includes upgrading of the existing road from Laisamis to the wind farm site, a distance of approximately 204km, as well as an access road network in and around the site for construction, operations and maintenance. <br/><br/> The Kenya Electricity Transmission Company Ltd (Ketraco),with concessional funding from the Spanish Government will be constructing a double circuit 400kv, 428km transmission line to deliver the LTWP electricity along with power from other future plants to the national grid. 50 to 90MW of capacity to be commissioned by 2015. The wind farm will be fully operational at 300 MW by 2016. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>16,200</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>810,660,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>500,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2009</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/norfund'>Norfund</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/norway'><small>Norway</small></a><br /><a href='/company/industrial-fund-for-developing-countries'>Industrial Fund for Developing Countries <small>(IF)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/denmark'><small>Denmark</small></a><br /><a href='/company/kemperman-paardekooper-partners-africa'>Kemperman Paardekooper & Partners Africa <small>(KP&P B.V.)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/netherlands'><small>Netherlands</small></a><br /><a href='/company/aldwych-international'>Aldwych International</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-kingdom'><small>United Kingdom</small></a><br /><a href='/company/vestas'>Vestas</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/denmark'><small>Denmark</small></a> - <small> The LTWP consortium comprises KP&P B.V., Aldwych International, Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa IDC, Industrial Fund for Developing Countries (IFU) Denmark, and Norwegian Investment Fund for Developing Countries Norfund, Spanish Government</small><br /><a href='/company/industrial-development-corporation-of-south-africa'>Industrial Development Corporation of South Africa <small>(IDC)</small></a> from <a href='/country-of-company/south-africa'><small>South Africa</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Kenya Electricity Transmission Company Ltd , Ministry of Energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/african-development-bank'>African Development Bank <small>(AfDB)</small></a><br /><a href='/institution/european-investment-bank'>European Investment Bank <small>(EIB)</small></a><br /><a href='/institution/standard-bank-plc'>Standard Bank Plc</a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/south-africa'><small>South Africa</small></a><br /><a href='/institution/nedbank-capital-of-south-africa'>Nedbank Capital of South Africa</a> from <a href='/country-of-institution/south-africa'><small>South Africa</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Nature Kenya, BirdLife International, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB)</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LOW (some local organising)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>International ejos<br /> Local ejos</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Objections to the EIA<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Writing official letters to funding institutions that provide recommendations on the project for consideration.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>bird strikes and hazards</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>Planned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>None observed to far</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Providing more detailed information through detailed bird survey in order to inform the choice of the most avian safe wind farm design. it is also extremely important to completely avoid migratory corridors of birds when choosing the site for wind farms and power lines.<br/><br/>Development of the outline Environmental and Social Management Plans provided in the ESIA into detailed plans before funding decisions are taken. These should set out the mechanism by which adaptive management will be used to address any unforeseen impacts, or impacts, which are found to be more severe, than predicted. <br/><br/>It is also important to clarify which funding Institution will lead compliance with the ESMP in order to ensure accountability.<br/><br/>Development of the outline Environmental and Social Management Plans provided in the projects ESIA into detailed plans before funding decisions are taken. These should set out the mechanism by which adaptive management will be used to address any unforeseen impacts, or impacts, which are found to be more severe, than predicted. </td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>NEMA approved the projects ESIA regardless of the fact that Nature Kenya had raised objections to it on the basis that adequate information was not provided in order to inform avian safe design and placement of wind turbines. <br/><br/>We are also uncertain whether the European Investment Bank will consider the recommendations given by Nature Kenya in order to prevent bird strikes/hazards before funding the project, prior to its implementation.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Environmental Management and Cordination Act (EMCA), Energy Act, National Environment Policy, Electric Power Act.<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Kenya Vision 2030<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Best Practice Guideline for Wind Farms, South Africa.<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Lake Turkana Wind Power Project<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Mega-Projects Kenya<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Serah Munguti</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>24/06/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>