Landfill of Chiaiano, Italy

Waste struggles in Campania are not only against the landfill, but against the entire undemocratic and imposed waste management model


Description
In 2007, another severe urban waste management crisis occurred in Campania. Due to the managerial incapability of the Commissioner to the Emergency (operational since 1994) and of FIBE - Impregilo (the private firm to which the contract for the management was granted), the landfills available in the region were gradually saturated and waste was once again piling up in the streets of Napoli and elsewhere in the region, causing health risks and protests. The government of Prime minister Prodi appointed a new Commissioner and identified new areas to use as landfills, including a disused tuff quarry in the Neapolitan district of Chiaiano, bordering the town of Marano. On May 28th 2008, the newly-installed Berlusconi government held its first Council of Ministers in Naples and it approved a decree (the no. 90 of May 23rd 2008, converted into Law no. 123 of July 14th 2008). The decree confirmed the choice of Chiaiano, identified other ten sites for opening new landfills (declaring them areas of national strategic interest of military competence), introduced tougher penalties for those who opposed to the management plans of the government and attributed to a special attorney the exclusive jurisdiction for the purpose of environmental crimes committed throughout the territory of Campania.
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Basic Data
NameLandfill of Chiaiano, Italy
CountryItaly
Province Campania Region
SiteLocality of “Cava del Poligono - Cupa del cane”, District of Chiaiano, Municipality of Naples
Accuracy of LocationHIGH local level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Waste Management
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Building materials extraction (quarries, sand, gravel)
Waste privatisation conflicts / waste-picker access to waste
Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites
Interbasin water transfers/transboundary water conflicts
Specific CommoditiesLand
Domestic municipal waste
Chemical products
Industrial waste
Project Details and Actors
Project Details
The decision to open a landfill in the quarry of the Poligono della Selva of Chiaiano was formalized in Decree n. 90 of May 23rd 2008, converted into Law no. 123 of July 14th 2008. This decree by the Berlusconi government placed the Commissioner to the Emergency in close cooperation with the Prime Minister and entrusted the role of the Chief Commissioner to the Civil Protection Head office Guido Bertolaso. The decree authorized, in addition to the transfer of municipal waste, hazardous waste materials marked with codes CER 19:01:11 (ash and slag containing dangerous substances), 19:01:13 (fly ash and slag containing dangerous substances), 19:02:05 (sludge from chemical and physical treatments containing dangerous substances), 19:12:11 (other wastes containing dangerous substances). The framework of the emergency had also enabled to design and build the landfill outside of environmental impact assessments, and landscape and hydrogeological safety standards.
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Project Area (in hectares)9,6 ha
Level of Investment (in USD)32,813,500 USD
Type of PopulationUrban
Potential Affected Population250.000 inhabitants of the district of Chiaiano and surrounding areas
Start Date01/04/2008
Company Names or State EnterprisesFIBE from Italy - quarry owner
IBI spa from Italy - constructor and manager of the landfill
Edilcar from Italy - constructor subcontracted
Relevant government actors- Commissioner to the Emergency

- Presidency of the Council of Ministers

- Head of Civil Protection

- Local administrations of Chiaiano, Marano and Mugnano

- Judiciary
Environmental justice organisations and other supportersPermanent garrison against the landfill of Chiaiano and Marano (http://www.chiaianodiscarica.it/); Community center Insurgencia (https://www.facebook.com/labinsurgencia) ; Assizes of Naples and of South Italy (http://www.napoliassise.it/) ;Network Campania, Health and Environment(http://www.rifiuticampania.org/) ; Committee Alarm Toxic Waste (http://www.allarmerifiutitossici.org/) ; Committee NO Landfills of North Naples Municipalities (https://nodiscarichenordnapoli.wordpress.com/)
The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingFarmers
Local ejos
Local government/political parties
Neighbours/citizens/communities
Social movements
Women
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationDevelopment of a network/collective action
Property damage/arson
Public campaigns
Artistic and creative actions (eg guerilla theatre, murals)
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Blockades
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Sabotage
Boycotts of official procedures/non-participation in official processes
Media based activism/alternative media
Community-based participative research (popular epidemiology studies, etc..)
Objections to the EIA
Street protest/marches
Occupation of buildings/public spaces
Development of alternative proposals
Official complaint letters and petitions
Impacts
Environmental ImpactsVisible: Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Oil spills
Potential: Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Genetic contamination, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems
Health ImpactsVisible: Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)
Potential: Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Deaths, Other environmental related diseases
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Loss of livelihood, Militarization and increased police presence, Specific impacts on women, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures
Outcome
Project StatusStopped
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCorruption
Criminalization of activists
Land demarcation
Court decision (failure for environmental justice)
Repression
Strengthening of participation
Development of AlternativesSince the beginning of the mobilization, citizens’ committees of Chiaiano, Marano and Mugnano, have specified that their struggle was not only against the landfill bound to arise in the quarries of Parco delle Colline, but against the entire waste management model focused on landfills and incinerators, and imposed from above in an authoritarian manner.

The alternatives proposed by local committees are in line with European legislation on waste, formally transposed into Italian regulation. The committees have proposed measures that would reduce waste production (principally by reducing it upstream). In addition, proposals have been drawn up for an integrated waste cycle that is based on a sorted waste collection door-to-door, on the composting of the organic fraction and on the use of alternative technologies to incineration for the remaining part (as the Mechanical biological Treatment, the molecular dissociator and the system THOR).

The committees have embraced (as indeed all the environmental movements of the region) the Zero Waste strategy as a guide for the correct approach to the problem of waste. This approach involves, in addition to reducing, reusing and recycling, the involvement of the industrial sector for the prevention of waste, the eco-design of products and the extended producer responsibility.
Do you consider this as a success?Yes
Why? Explain briefly.The massive use of police by the government imposed the opening of the landfill. However, the reasons of the committees have been confirmed by investigations of the judiciary, and the landfill was closed. The mobilization has also affected the level of organization and social cooperation that today is reflected both in other struggles for health and environment, and in a variety of local initiatives aimed to improve the livability of places.
Sources and Materials
Legislations

Report of the Parliament on the implementation of the law 123 of July 14th,2008 (https://ambienti.files.wordpress.com/2009/02/relazione-bertolaso-090226.pdf)

Text of Decree Law n. 90 of May 23rd 2008, converted into law n. 123 of July 14th 2008, “Extraordinary measures to deal with the emergency in the waste sector in the Campania region and further provisions of civil protection” (http://www.amministrativo.it/ambiente/osservatorio.php?num=1061)

References

Epidemiological surveillance on health status of the population living around the waste treatment plants, study of the project SESPIR by the Ministry of Health and the National Center for the Control and Prevention of Diseases, 2010
[click to view]

Preliminary project for the restoration of environmental disused quarry in Chiaiano in the municipality of Naples, by the Special Commissioner, 2011
[click to view]

Antonello Petrillo, edited by, Biopolitica di un rifiuto. Le rivolte anti-discarica a Napoli e in Campania, Verona, Ombre Corte, 2009

Synthesis of the final project of the landfill of Chiaiano, by the Civil Protection, 2008
[click to view]

Links

Map of the quarries of Chiaiano
[click to view]

Chiaiano, from cherry to arsenic (detailed map of the landfill area)
[click to view]

Special article on Chiaiano edited by the Assizes of Naples and South Italy
[click to view]

From Chiaiano – Environmental resistance and protection instruments of territories and communities
[click to view]

Dossier of documents edited by the website ChiaiaNOdiscarica
[click to view]

Chiaiano, another truth – article of Maurizio Braucci in “Nazione Indiana”
[click to view]

Media Links

Collection of video edited by ChiaiaNOdiscarica
[click to view]

Una cosa importante da dire, Raffaele Manco, 2008

Collection of photographic materials edited by ChiaiaNOdiscarica
[click to view]

Una Montagna di Balle, Nicola Angrisano, product by Insu^tv, 77’, 2009

Other Documents

Manifestazione
[click to view]

Cava di Chiaiano
[click to view]

Scontri durante la manifestazione
[click to view]

Zona militarizzata
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorSalvatore Paolo De Rosa - [email protected] (ENTITLE)
Last update28/02/2015
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