Lignite mining Cottbus Nord (Lakoma), Germany

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">Since the development of the lignite mine in the north of Cottbus (1978) seven municipalities were destroyed and 906 residents had to be relocated. The strongest opposition took place in the municipality of Lakoma. The vast majority of that time about 150 inhabitants was resettled before the reunification in 1989/90 despite protests and some farms were demolished. Then the village was as deserted or ghost town largely empty. In May 1992, vacant buildings were occupied by environmental activists. A year later an association was founded, which, inter alia sought to legalize the occupations and to implement a common village use. This association received in 1994 the right for interim use of Lakoma until 2003. More than twenty people inhabited at that time the remaining part of the village. After expiry of the interim use contracts (in 2003), the owner of the village (Swedish government owned enterprise Vattenfall) evacuated the village by police violence and despite continued resistance. Afterwards, all but two houses at the entrance of the village close proximity to the main road were teared off. In 2004 a two-hour documentary was made about the conflict as well as many other documentations and articles in the local press and in national newspapers. The activists were supported by various EJO’s including Robin Wood, Friends of the Earth Germany (BUND). Protest actions have included occupation of the village (1992-2003), tree occupations (2005-2007), and open letters to the EU commission. In 2008, the village Lakoma disappeared permanently from the countryside north of Cottbus. In the spring of 2010, the coal mine reached the town center. The mining in the Cottbus-Nord mine will continue until 2015 and flooded in 2018. Thus, the former village Lakoma is a part of the future Cottbus East Lake. <br/><br/></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Lignite mining Cottbus Nord (Lakoma), Germany</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/germany">Germany</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Brandenburg</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Lakoma</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>MEDIUM regional level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Coal extraction and processing</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /><a href='/commodity/coal'>Coal</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">,7 ha, 4-7 Million Tonnes of lignite per year</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>2,700</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>906</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>1989</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/vattenfall-europe-mining-ag'>Vattenfall Europe Mining AG</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/germany'><small>Germany</small></a><br /><a href='/company/vattenfall'>Vattenfall</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/sweden'><small>Sweden</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Brandenburg Government</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Greenpeace, Robin Wood, Friends of the Earth Germany (BUND)</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>UNKNOWN</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Farmers<br /> International ejos<br /> Local ejos<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Land occupation<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Street protest/marches<br /> Occupation of buildings/public spaces</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>The regions lignite fired power plants cause annual costs for human health and the environment of about 3 to 5 billion Euro altogether. In its communication to the European Commission <br/><br/>Brandenburg calls upon a significant fraction of pollution (on 57% of days when limits were exceeded) to originate from long-range transboundary air pollution, for example from Poland and the Czech Republic.<br/><br/>The air pollution action plan of the municipality of Cottbus from the year <br/><br/>2006 similarly estimates that about half of the urban <br/><br/>pollution with particulate matter is actually due to ambient air pollution and not caused by local traffic. Ambient air <br/><br/>pollution is partly caused by the lignite-fired power plants in the greater region.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in violence and crime, Loss of livelihood, Loss of landscape/sense of place<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Displacement, Land dispossession</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Compensation<br /> Violent targeting of activists</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Stop mining, renewable energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>In 2003, the owner of the village (Swedish government owned enterprise Vattenfall) evacuated the village by police violence and despite continued resistance. Afterwards, all but two houses at the entrance of the village close proximity to the main road were teared off. In 2008, the village Lakoma disappeared permanently from the countryside north of Cottbus. In the spring of 2010, the coal mine reached the town center. The mining in the Cottbus-Nord mine will continue until 2015 and flooded in 2018. Thus, the former village Lakoma is a part of the future Cottbus East Lake.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Brandenburg Constitution, German Mining law<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.robinwood.de/german/energie/braunkohle/index-lacoma.htm" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.robinwood.de/german/energie/braunkohle/index-lacoma.htm" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lakoma" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.greenpeace.de/fileadmin/gpd/user_upload/themen/klima/Lausitzkarte_mit_Infos_zum_Ausdrucken.pdf" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.robinwood.de/german/energie/braunkohle/index-lacoma.htm" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Gabriel Weber</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>24/06/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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