Lignite mining Garzweiler I, Germany

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">Garzweiler I is a large surface mine in the German state of North-Rhine Westphalia. It is operated by RWE and used for mining lignite. The mine is located west of Grevenbroich and exploitation is progressing towards Erkelenz. Mining was originally limited to the 66.0 km² area Garzweiler I located east of motorway A 44. Mining in the 48.0 km² Garzweiler II sector started in 2006 (see Immerath, Garzweiler I conflict) and it will take until around 2045 to fully exploit both sectors. The lignite is used for power generation at nearby power plants such as Neurath. For the Garzweiler I mine people from several municipalities (Reisdorf, Garzweiler, Priesterath, Stolzenberg, Elfgen, Belmen, Morken-Harff, Epprath, Omagen, Königshoven, Otzenrath, Spenrath, Holz) had to be moved. Resistance against relocation were particularly strong in Otzenratz were people protested with lighting chains. In 1995 a citizen survey advocated a suit of the community before the Constitutional Court of Münster, which was however rejected. In 2000, the resettlement of most residents began (about 80 percent) to the new location, which was completed by 2007. In 2008 a last resistance was organized by the BUND (Friends of the Earth Germany), which occupied its own orchard on the edge of the pit. <br/><br/></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Lignite mining Garzweiler I, Germany</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/germany">Germany</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>North Rhine-Westfalia</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Garzweiler</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Fossil Fuels and Climate Justice/Energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Pollution related to transport (spills, dust, emissions)<br /> Coal extraction and processing<br /> Tailings from mines</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/coal'>Coal</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">Lignite extracted per year 35-45 million tonnes, overburden 175-225 million tonnes</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>66,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>5,260</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>1987</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/rwe'>RWE</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/germany'><small>Germany</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>North Rhine-Westfalia government, government municipality of Jüchen</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>BUND (Friends of the Earth Germany)</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>LOW (some local organising)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>PREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Land occupation<br /> Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism<br /> Public campaigns</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Air pollution, Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Global warming, Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Noise pollution, Soil contamination</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Potential: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>health impacts of fine particulates</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Displacement, Loss of livelihood, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Compensation<br /> Court decision (failure for environmental justice)<br /> German energy turnaround and lead to closure of lignite power stations and the need of lignite mining</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Close down of lignite power station, stop lignite mining, propose renewable energy</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>All people, that have been living in the area have been relocated. Most recently RWE power is considering to close down some nearby lignite power stations. While this may help people from the area of Immerath/ Garzweiler II, in the area of Garzweler I relocation of people is already finished.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> German constitution, German mining law<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Bergmann, A. (1999). Hydrogeochemische Untersuchungen anoxischer Redoxprozesse in tiefen Porengrundwasserleitern der Niederrheinischen Bucht-im Umfeld des Tagebaus Garzweiler I. Inst. für Geologie, Ruhr-Univ..<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Obermann, P., & Wisotzky, F. (1998). Auswirkungen der Pyritoxidation im Bereich des Braunkohlentagebaus Garzweiler auf die Qualität des Kippengrundwassers-Möglichkeiten und Maßnahmen der Qualitätsverbesserung. Deutsche Gewässerkundliche Mitteilungen, 42(6), 234-240.<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.bund-nrw.de/themen_und_projekte/braunkohle/verheizte_heimat/umsiedlungen_im_rheinland/" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Rheinisches_Braunkohlerevier_DE.png" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Gabriel Weber</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>24/06/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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