Marange Diamond Land and Human Rights abuses, Zimbabwe

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns"><div class="less">Marange diamond fields were known to the public in 2006, triggering a diamond rush which lasted for 3 to 4 years. At the height of artisanal mining in 2008 an estimated 40 000 artisanal miners and diggers were now living in the diamond fields. However, without warning, government deployed the army into Marange in November 2008 to violently put to an end artisanal mining. What followed was a massacre of local diggers and dealers. The community was not spared either the violence spread to several villages and communities around the diamond fields. Human Rights Watch estimate that about 200 miners were killed, though this figure could be way below the actual, given that some were buried inside the diamond fields, whilst hundreds more died in hospitals and in their homes and were not recorded as having died in Marange. Hundreds of women were raped by the uniformed forces and hundreds more were forced to have unprotected sex with artisanal miners in full view of fellow captives. The method of torture against artisanal miners has continued to this day. Although violence by the army has significantly gone down, private security guards, mainly recruited from ZANU PF structures continue to terrorize miners. </div><a class="seemore" href="#">See more...</a><div class="more" style="display:none"> When the Zimbabwe National Army invaded Marange Diamond Fields in November 2008, government began preparations for commercial mining activities in Marange. Consequently a place located about 40KM North of Marange was identified by government as a sight for relocating the Marange villagers. There was no consultation with the affected families. Then in December 2010 an operation involving the Army, Police, Central Intelligence Organization and mining companies began to forcibly remove 4000 families from their traiditional homes to Arda Transau, a government farm. As soon as a family was forced out their homestead was destroyed immediately, in full view of the owners. There was valuation of the destroyed homesteads. They were not given choices as to where they want to be relocated to. They were not compensated for being forced out of their ancestral homeland. Despite being subsistence farmers they were given small pieces of land measuring the size of a football pitch. There is very limited grazing land in the new compound. Each company is constructing homes for families affected by its activities. There is overgrazing in the new area due to limited grazing land. The families are also starving, relying of food handouts from the companies which come after lengthy intervals. <br/><br/><a class="seeless" href="#">(See less)</a></div></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Marange Diamond Land and Human Rights abuses, Zimbabwe</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/zimbabwe">Zimbabwe</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Manicaland</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Marange District</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Mineral Ores and Building Materials Extraction</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Mineral processing<br /> Military installations<br /> Mineral ore exploration<br /> Tailings from mines</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td><a href='/commodity/diamonds'>Diamonds</a><br /><a href='/commodity/land'>Land</a><br /></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">Diamonds worth over 2.5 billion dollars are being mined in Marange annually</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>120000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>1000000000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Rural</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>700,000 - 1,000,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2006</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/anjin-investments'>Anjin Investments</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/china'><small>China</small></a><br /><a href='/company/diamond-mining-corporation'>Diamond Mining Corporation</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/united-arab-emirates'><small>United Arab Emirates</small></a><br /><a href='/company/mbada-diamonds'>Mbada Diamonds</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/zimbabwe'><small>Zimbabwe</small></a><br /><a href='/company/marange-resources'>Marange Resources</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/zimbabwe'><small>Zimbabwe</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Ministry of Mines and Mining Development, Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation, Minerals Marketing Corporation of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe National Army, Zimbabwe Republic Police, Central Intelligence Organization, Marange Rural District Council, Marange Traditiona</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">International and Financial Institutions</td><td><a href='/institution/un-kimberley-process'>UN Kimberley Process <small>(KP)</small></a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Kimberly Process, Center for Natural Resource Governance, Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association, Chiadzwa Community Development Association</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>HIGH (widespread, mass mobilization, violence, arrests, etc...)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>In REACTION to the implementation (during construction or operation)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Local ejos<br /> Local government/political parties<br /> Trade unions<br /> Local scientists/professionals</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Development of a network/collective action<br /> Involvement of national and international NGOs<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Biodiversity loss (wildlife, agro-diversity), Desertification/Drought, Food insecurity (crop damage), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil contamination, Soil erosion, Waste overflow, Deforestation and loss of vegetation cover, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Large-scale disturbance of hydro and geological systems, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity, Mine tailing spills<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Air pollution, Fires, Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Genetic contamination, Global warming, Oil spills</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Malnutrition, Mental problems including stress, depression and suicide, Violence related health impacts (homicides, rape, etc..) , Health problems related to alcoholism, prostitution, Occupational disease and accidents, Infectious diseases, Deaths, Other environmental related diseases<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Accidents</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Displacement, Increase in violence and crime, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Loss of livelihood, Loss of traditional knowledge/practices/cultures, Militarization and increased police presence, Social problems (alcoholism, prostitution, etc..), Specific impacts on women, Violations of human rights, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>Compensation<br /> Corruption<br /> Criminalization of activists<br /> Deaths<br /> Environmental improvements, rehabilitation/restoration of area<br /> Migration/displacement<br /> Repression<br /> Violent targeting of activists</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>In line with the Joint Work Plan developed by Zimbabwe and the KPCS in Namibia in 2009, government must create a legal framework allowing artisanal miners to operate legally in Marange<br/><br/>Mobilizers are also calling for the complete withdrawal of the army from Marange<br/><br/>Prosecution of all persons accused of perpetrating violence in Marange. Government must consult affected families where they desire to be resettled ie district, village etc or whether they wish to relocate to an urban area. There is need to fully compensate the affected families for loss of ancestral homes, loss of livelihoods, loss of education, loss of cultural heritage, loss of burial shrines etc</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>Whilst there has been some rehabilitation of forests, especially by Anjin, Marange is still experiencing serious environmental degradation according to local activists and workers. Further, a recent report by Environmental Law Association revealed that Maran ge diamond mining companies are seriously polluting rivers, thereby exposing humans and livestock downstream to health risks. Meanwhile, there is overcrowding in Arda Transau leading to over-grazing and environmental degradation.</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Land Occupation Conditions Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Rural land Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Rural Land Occupiers Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Agriculture and Rural Development Act <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Rural District Councils Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Agricultural Land Settlement Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Communal land Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Environmental Management Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> land Acquisition Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Mines and Minerals Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Zimbabwe Mining Development Corporation Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Provincial Councils and Administration Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Traditional leaders Act<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Diamonds in the rough zimbabwe0609webwcover_0.pdf<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> villagers demand US$50k each/news.aspx<br/><a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Comments</td><td>It is also alleged that there is such lawlessness in the area to the extend that some small scale miners are exploring on the other peoples private property and when they discover chrome they start mining. This has seen a rise in mining related conflicts and violence</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Farai Maguwu</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>