The former airport of Hellinikon and the coastal front of Ag.Kosmas, Greece


The former international airport of Hellinikon is located in the southern coastal zone of Attica and was in operation till 2001. The idea of creating a metropolitan park in the area was first initiated in 1995 , following the ratification of the contract for the construction and operation of the new airport at Spata in eastern Attica (El. Venizelos). In 1996 a research project for the creation of the park started. Although, it was never completed, as in 1997 Greece undertook the organization of Olympic Games and several sport facilities were created there. Although, all government responsible declared that the buildings were provisional and the area would be a park. Nevertheless, in December 2003, the Ministry of Environment, Spatial Planning and Public Works (now renamed to Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change (YPEKA)) launched an international architectural competition for the creation of a metropolitan park as well as the development of the area, comprising business buildings, residences, restaurants, etc. In 2007 the Minister presented a proposal for the area with business buildings, malls and residences of 130 HA.

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Basic Data
NameThe former airport of Hellinikon and the coastal front of Ag.Kosmas, Greece
ProvinceRegion of Attica
SiteMunicipality of Hellinikon-Argyroupolis
Accuracy of LocationMEDIUM regional level
Source of Conflict
Type of Conflict (1st level)Infrastructure and Built Environment
Type of Conflict (2nd level)Land acquisition conflicts
Urban development conflicts
Tourism facilities (ski resorts, hotels, marinas)
Wetlands and coastal zone management
Specific CommoditiesUrban open spaces; Green urban spaces
Tourism services
Project Details and Actors
Project Details370 ΗΑ of new constructions (hotels, golf courses, shopping malls, marinas, theme parks, museums, casinos, offices, thousands of luxurious residences); demolition of more than 36 HA of buildings in the site, which are either currently used or can be reused in the future; 200 HA of park; construction of large-scale infrastructure projects, such as urban highways and electrical power stations [14, 15]
Project Area (in hectares)530 hectares (the total area of the former Airport) 97,6 hectares (urban waterfront) [1]
Level of Investment (in USD)8,7 billion $ estimated level of investment according to the company [14] 1,1 million $ is the amount the company gave for exploiting the area for 99 years [16]
Type of PopulationUrban
Potential Affected Population51,356 (Municipality of Hellinikon-Argyroupoli) 3,812,330 (Region of Attica)
Start Date18/01/2008
Company Names or State EnterprisesLAMDA Development S.A. (LAMDA Development ) from Greece - Investor
Relevant government actorsHellenic Republic Asset Development Fund (TAIPED); HELLINIKON S.A.; Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change; Ministry of Finance; Ministry of Infrastructure, Transport and Networks
Environmental justice organisations and other supporters5 civil society movements for the protection of the environment in Attica region; 31 organizations and civil society movements from all over Greece; 36 municipal parties; 5 political parties and organizations. For the full list please visit: (in Greek)

Members from the International Union of Architects as well as international organizations. For the full list please visit:

The Conflict and the Mobilization
Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)
When did the mobilization beginPREVENTIVE resistance (precautionary phase)
Groups MobilizingLocal ejos
Local government/political parties
Social movements
Local scientists/professionals
Forms of MobilizationBlockades
Creation of alternative reports/knowledge
Development of a network/collective action
Development of alternative proposals
Involvement of national and international NGOs
Land occupation
Lawsuits, court cases, judicial activism
Media based activism/alternative media
Official complaint letters and petitions
Public campaigns
Street protest/marches
Environmental ImpactsPotential: Air pollution, Floods (river, coastal, mudflow), Loss of landscape/aesthetic degradation, Noise pollution, Soil erosion
Socio-economic ImpactsVisible: Increase in Corruption/Co-optation of different actors, Lack of work security, labour absenteeism, firings, unemployment, Land dispossession, Loss of landscape/sense of place
Potential: Displacement, Loss of livelihood
Project StatusPlanned (decision to go ahead eg EIA undertaken, etc)
Pathways for conflict outcome / responseCorruption
Land demarcation
Court decision (undecided)
Negotiated alternative solution
Strengthening of participation
Development of AlternativesThe research project “Basic plan principles for a Metropolitan Park at the former airport of Hellinikon” elaborated by the Urban Environment Laboratory of the School of Architecture of the National Technical University of Athens, foresees the creation of 599.5 ha of open green spaces and the reuse of 241 out of 480 existing buildings (e.g. 36.6 ha out of 49.1 ha of existing buildings). In addition to this, no more buildings are permitted and the park will be in direct connection with the coastal zone. The basic principles of the project are the upgrade and extension of the network of open public spaces and green spaces across Attica and the creation of new ones, the reuse of the existing buildings and the creation of a metropolitan cultural, recreational, educational and research facilities center, accessible to all the inhabitants and visitors of Attica, the protection of antiquities, monuments and buildings of special architectural or historical importance, etc. The goal is also to create an indispensable ecological unit by connecting Imittos Mountain and the waterfront of Saronikos [17, 18].

Actually, several activities and civil society organizations are hosted in the existing premises, such as the Metropolitan Community Clinic. It provides free primary medical care and medication to all uninsured, unemployed and needy patients regardless of who they are or where they come from. It’s a volunteer run community clinic that started in 2011. Today more than 200 volunteers participate, including doctors, dentists, pharmacists, therapists and support staff. More than 100 patients are treated per day. Moreover, MCCH provides psychological support to the unemployed, as well as baby food and other basic baby needs, all free of charge. All medicine and various items are donations from fellow citizens with the urge to stand by those in need during the economic crisis that we are all going through. [19]

Furthermore, in the area of the former airport the “Self-managed farm of Hellinikο" is located. Basic principle of the community is the alternative, social and solidarity economy. The farm has been created by a group of citizens as a collective effort against the financial crisis. In addition, the group took the initiative for the creation of an olive grow and several voluntary tree plantings have already taken place with the participation of many citizens from the wider area of Attica [20].
Do you consider this as a success?Not Sure
Why? Explain briefly.Although the contract of the sell-out of the former airport to Lamda Development is signed, the contract is not yet ratified by the Greek parliament and no works have taken place yet. Furthermore, the ruling from the Court of Auditors is expected (the hearing took place in January 7th, 2015). There is a strong opposition, as the processes followed are very problematic and unclear and the overall procedure has many elements of corruption [16, 21].

The Struggle Committee for the Metropolitan Park, as well as other initiatives and groups active in the area of the former airport continue their activities and the struggle for the creation of a park, as this is vital for the densely populated area of Attica.
Sources and Materials

Law 4062/2012: "Project development of the former airport of Hellinikon – Project Ilios – Promotion of the use of Renewable Energy Sources (integration of the EC Directive 2009/28/EC) – Sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids (integration of the EC Directive 2009/30/EC)"


[18] Urban Environment Laboratory, NTUA, 2011, Basic planning & design principles for the creation of the Metropolitan Green Park at the former Hellinikon International Airport of Athens” - Summary of research findings and key proposal points
[click to view]

Urban Environment Laboratory, NTUA, 2011, Metropolitan Park in the Former Airport of Hellinikon, Full project texts and Appendixes
[click to view]

[11] Technical Chamber of Greece, 2014, “Feasibility Study Assessment of the Investment Value of Metropolitan Pole of Hellinicon – Agios Cosmas”,
[click to view]

[1] Urban Environment Laboratory, National Technical University of Athens, 2010, Basic concepts of Hellinikon Metropolitan Park in the former International Airport of Athens
[click to view]


[3] Struggle Committee for the Metropolitan Park, 2011, Open letter to the ambassador of Qatar
[click to view]

[4] Struggle Committee for the Metropolitan Park, 2011, Struggle Committee’s Declaration
[click to view]

[10] Totsikas Panos, 2014, In a critical spot the scandal of Hellinikon
[click to view]

[12] Struggle Committee for the Metropolitan Park, 2014, Statement for the attempted sell out of Hellinikon
[click to view]

[13] Karamanoli E., 2014, Tension in the Court of Auditors during the hearing for the case of Hellinikon,
[click to view]

[17] City of Hellinikon – Argyroupoli, 2013, Former Airport of Hellinikon & Aghios Kosmas Waterfrona, the present and the future of a Metropolitan Park for Athens, Symposium Brochure

[19] Metropolitan Community Clinic at Helliniko (MCCH), 2014
[click to view]

[21] Vatikiotis Leonidas, 2014, Do it as Latsis, 36, Magazine Unfollow

[2] Adamopoulos K., 2011, Hellinikon: a history of populism, hypocrisy and divestiture. Will we allow its completion?
[click to view]

[5] Struggle Committee for the Metropolitan Park, 2012, The plan for the saleout of Hellinikon
[click to view]

[6] Struggle Committee for the Metropolitan Park, 2012, They start a roadshow for the divestiture and building up of Hellinikon
[click to view]

[7] Struggle Committee for the Metropolitan Park, 2012, Unconstitutional the regulation for Hellinikon, but ...
[click to view]

[8] Struggle Committee for the Metropolitan Park, 2012, Citizens seized to the Council of State against the “sell-out” of Hellinikon
[click to view]

[9] Struggle Committee for the Metropolitan Park, 2012, New action before the Council of State for Hellinikon
[click to view]

[14] Lamda Development, 2014, Hellinikon project
[click to view]

[15] City of Hellinikon – Argyroupoli, 2014, The site of Hellinikon in Athens: development for whom?
[click to view]

[16] Tsakanikas N., 2014, Billion euros businesses in the Attica region coastal zone, 35, Magazine Unfollow

[20] Self-managed farm of Hellenikο, 2014
[click to view]

Struggle Committee for the Metropolitan Park, 2014, Petition: Hellinikon is not for sale! Metropolitan Park now!
[click to view]

Simantke Elisa, 2014, Europoly, Privatization under the Troica, The Mayfair – The multi Billion Euro deal with Athens’ Former Airport , Tagesspiegel,
[click to view]

Media Links

Video from the 1st of Mai 2012 participation in the demo in Athens
[click to view]

Demonstration in TAIPED, 17 of April 2012
[click to view]

Video from the 1st festival, Mai 2011
[click to view]

Video from concert in September 2011
[click to view]

Other Documents

Demonstration in Athens 1st may 2011
[click to view]

Poster for Hellinikon - Ag. Kosmas Metropolitan Park
[click to view]

Information event in the Municipality of Ilioupoli, April 11
[click to view]

)live trees' planting in the former airport, March 12
[click to view]

1st festival poster (2011)
[click to view]

Poster with the basic concepts of Hellinikon Metropolitan Park in the former International Airport of Athens
[click to view]

Visual arts exchibition in Hellinikon, September 2011
[click to view]

Demonstration in TAIPED premises, April 12 premisses
[click to view]

Meta Information
ContributorErmioni Frezouli, Geography Department - Harokopio University Athens (HUA).
Last update03/02/2015