Mozambique Water Pollution from a dumpsite, Zimbabwe

<div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Description</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld"></td><td class="columns">A trans boundary pollution conflict is developing between Zimbabwe and Mozambique over an uncontrolled dumpsite in Zimbabwe’s eastern border city, Mutare. The dump site, located at the spot where Munene River which flows into Mozambique begins, has been in operation for six decades. All rubbish from Mutare, ranging from gabbage collected from residential suburbs, to hospitals and industries is dumped at the dumpsite located in Nyakamete Industrial area. Munene River drains into the Revue river which in turn flows into Chicamba Dam which supplies water to the provincial capital Chimoio, Manica City and Gondola. Apart from supplying domestic water to the province, Chicamba Dam is also a major recreational facility for Manica Province and is a source of livelihood for fishermen. Zimbabweans flock to Manica City in Mozambique for a variety of fish which range from small kapenta to brims, also sourced from Chicamba, among other sources. The Manica Provincial Director for the Environment is reported to have described the situation as ‘very serious’. The Governor of Manica City set up a task force to study the problem and make recommendations which were unenforceable due to the lack of preparedness on the part of Mutare City Council which cited financial difficulties. So far only the Manica Town Council and Manica Local Government are leading the campaign to stop the pollution whilst there is no civil society activism on the Zimbabwe side. In fact most Zimbabweans are not aware of the problem, mainly due to lack of medical care. <br/><br/></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Basic Data</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Name</td><td>Mozambique Water Pollution from a dumpsite, Zimbabwe</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Country</td><td><a href="/country/zimbabwe">Zimbabwe</a></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Province</td><td>Manicaland in Zimbabwe (source of Pollution) and Manica Province Mozambique (Effects)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Site</td><td>Mutare City Council and Manica City in Mozambique</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Accuracy of Location</td><td>HIGH local level</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Source of Conflict</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (1st level)</td><td>Waste Management</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Conflict (2nd level)</td><td>Landfills, toxic waste treatment, uncontrolled dump sites<br /> Other industries<br /> Water access rights and entitlements</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Specific Commodities</td><td>Municipal Waste, Garbage Collected From Residential Surbubs And Hospitals<br /><a href='/commodity/industrial-waste'>Industrial waste</a><br /><a href='/commodity/domestic-municipal-waste'>Domestic municipal waste</a></td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Project Details and Actors</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Details</td><td class="columns">The quantity of waste dumped is unknown</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Project Area (in hectares)</td><td>2000000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Level of Investment (in USD)</td><td>N/A</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Type of Population</td><td>Semi-urban</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Potential Affected Population</td><td>1,000,000 - 2,000,000</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Start Date</td><td>2009</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Company Names or State Enterprises</td><td><a href='/company/mutare-city-council'>Mutare City Council</a> from <a href='/country-of-company/zimbabwe'><small>Zimbabwe</small></a> - <small> Mutare based Industries also dump industrial waste, including toxic wastes at the dumpsite</small></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Relevant government actors</td><td>Mutare City Council, Environmental Management Agency, Ministry of Environment and Tourism, Zimbabwe National Water Authority</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Environmental justice organisations and other supporters</td><td>Manica City Council & Manica Local Government, Mozambique</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">The Conflict and the Mobilization</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Intensity of Conflict (at highest level)</td><td>MEDIUM (street protests, visible mobilization)</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">When did the mobilization begin</td><td>Mobilization for reparations once impacts have been felt</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Groups Mobilizing</td><td>Local government/political parties<br /> Neighbours/citizens/communities</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Forms of Mobilization</td><td>Creation of alternative reports/knowledge<br /> Media based activism/alternative media<br /> Official complaint letters and petitions<br /> Public campaigns<br /> Arguments for the rights of mother nature</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Impacts</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Environmental Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Waste overflow, Surface water pollution / Decreasing water (physico-chemical, biological) quality, Groundwater pollution or depletion, Reduced ecological / hydrological connectivity<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Food insecurity (crop damage), Genetic contamination, Soil contamination</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>Eutrophication, presence of heavy metals in the water</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Health Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Exposure to unknown or uncertain complex risks (radiation, etc…), Deaths, Other environmental related diseases<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Accidents, Infectious diseases</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other</td><td>The Manica Town Council blames past cases of Cholera on the polluted river</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Socio-economic Impacts</td><td><strong>Visible: </strong>Loss of livelihood, Specific impacts on women<br /><strong>Potential: </strong>Violations of human rights</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Outcome</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Project Status</td><td>In operation</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Pathways for conflict outcome / response</td><td>New legislation<br /> Under negotiation<br /> Application of existing regulations<br /> New Environmental Impact Assessment/Study</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Development of Alternatives</td><td>Companies must stop disposing toxic waste into the river, rather they must invest into technology which prevents pollution<br/><br/>Activists want a complete overhaul of the current Environmental Manage Act to give the agency prosecuting authority and the setting up of an environmental pollution court staffed with judges with knowledge of environmental law and impacts. They also want stiffer penalties for environmental crime perpetrators, including suspension and revocation of licences for regular offenders.</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Do you consider this as a success?</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Why? Explain briefly.</td><td>The Mutare City Council acknowledged the problem but took no action, saying the council does not have the financial resources to find alternative methods of disposing of the waste. The Council also promised to look for an alternative dump site but this is yet to be done</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Sources and Materials</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Legislations</td><td><table><tr><td><p> Environmental Management Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Regional Town, Country and Planning Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Natural Resources Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Hazardous Substances and Article Act<br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Zimbabwe National Water Authority Acts<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">References</td><td><table><tr><td><p> RIVER POLLUTION IN THE CITY OF MUTARE (ZIMBABWE) AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT <br/></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> Jemitias Mapira, Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa (Volume 13, No.6, 2011) (attached)<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://allafrica.com/stories/201102040278.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://www.thezimbabwean.co.uk/news/36792/zimbabwean-rubbish-contaminates-mozambican-river.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr><tr><td><p> <a class="refanch small" href="http://newsmoz.blogspot.com/2011/01/zimbabwean-rubbish-contaminates.html" target="_blank">[click to view]</a></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Media Links</td><td><table><tr><td><p> N/A<br/></p></td></tr></table></td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Other Comments</td><td>N/A</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div><div class="horipane"><div class="title active">Meta Information</div><div class="content"><table class="table"><tbody><tr><td class="fld">Contributor</td><td>Farai Maguwu</td></tr><tr><td class="fld">Last update</td><td>08/04/2014</td></tr></tbody></table></div></div>
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